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Full text of "Smithsonian Institution fiscal year ... budget request to Office of Management and Budget"

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ADMINISTRATIVELY CONFIDENTIAL 
Information not to be released until after the President's Budget is submitted to the Congress in 1999 











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Smithsonian Institution 

Fiscal Year 2000 
Budget Request to OMB 



September 1998 



Smithsonian Institution 

Board of Regents 



Under Separate Boards of Trustees 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 

National Gallery of Art 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 





The Secretary 






























1 
















Inspector General 




Secretariat 






Planning, 

Management and 

Budget 




Membership 

and 
Development 





























General 
Counsel 



Government 
Relations 



Operations 
Directorate 

ADMINISTRATION 
Equal Employment and Minority 

Affairs 
Human Resources 
Ombudsman 

FACmiTES 

Environmental Management and Safety 
Physical Plant 
Protection Services 

FINANCE 
Comptroller 
Contracting 
Treasurer 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 
Imaging, Printing, and Photographic 

Services 
Information Technology 



The Under 

Secretary 




Communications 

- Public Affairs 

- Visitor Information 

and Associates' 
Reception Center 



Special Events 

and Conference 

Services 



Business Advancement 
Directorate 

Smithsonian Associates 

Smithsonian Businesses 
-Retail 

- Concessions 

- Product Development 

and Licensing 

- Smithsonian Press/Productions 

Smithsonian Magazine 



Museums and Research Institutes 



Anacostia Museum/Center for African American 

History and Culture 
Archives of American Art 
Arthur M Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery of Art 
Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 
Hirshhom Museum and Sculpture Garden 
National Air and Space Museum 
National Museum of African Art 
National Museum of American Art 

- Renwick Gallery 
National Museum of American History 
National Museum of the American Indian 
National Museum of Natural History 

— Museum Support Center 
National Portrait Gallery 
National Postal Museum 
National Zoological Park 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives 
Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Education, Museum, 
and Scholarly Services 

Center for Museum Studies 
Exhibits Central 
Fellowships and Grants 
International Relations 
National Science Resources Center 
Program for Asian Pacific 

American Studies 
Smithsonian Institution Archives 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling 

Exhibition Service 
Smithsonian Office of Education 
Sponsored Projects 

Other support services: 
Accessibility Program 
Institutional Studies 
Scientific Diving Program 



August 21. 199S 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
FISCAL YEAR 2000 BUDGET REQUEST TO OMB 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ORGANIZATION CHART 

INTRODUCTION 

Year in Review 1 

Visits to the Smithsonian 4 

Budget Request Summary 5 

PERFORMANCE PLAN 

Introduction to the FY 2000 Performance Plan 1 1 

FY 2000 Performance Plan 13 

SALARIES & EXPENSES 

Summary of FY 2000 Change 27 

Mandatory Increases for Sustaining Base Operations 28 

Summary of Program Changes 36 

Museums and Research Institutes 

Anacostia Museum 38 

Archives of American Art 41 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery of Art 45 

Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 48 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 51 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 54 

National Air and Space Museum 57 

National Museum of African Art 61 

National Museum of American Art 64 

National Museum of American History 67 

National Museum of the American Indian 71 

National Museum of Natural History 77 

National Portrait Gallery 81 

National Zoological Park 84 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 87 

Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education ....90 



Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 93 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 96 

Program Support and Outreach 

Communications and Educational Programs 99 

I nstitution- wide Programs 1 02 

Office of Exhibits Central 113 

Major Scientific Instrumentation 1 15 

Museum Support Center 1 19 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 121 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 123 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 126 

Administration 129 

Facilities Services 

Office of Protection Services 131 

Office of Physical Plant 134 

CAPITAL PROGRAM 

Repair, Restoration and Alteration of Facilities 137 

Construction 1 49 

APPENDIX 

Strategic Plan 1 55 

Special Foreign Currency Program 173 

Nonappropriated Resources 175 



Building illustrations by Jamshid Kooros. From The Official Guide to the Smithsonian, 
Washington DC; copyright ® 1996 by the Smithsonian Institution. 



THE YEAR IN REVIEW 



Near the end of his lengthy will, drafted in 1826, James Smithson 
wrote a single sentence incorporating the idea of the United States' 
creating "an establishment dedicated to the increase and diffusion of 
Knowledge among men." Over the next 170 years that idea grew into the 
world's largest museum, education, and research complex, pre-eminent in 
astrophysics, tropical and environmental biology, the history of science, art 
history, aeronautics and space science, natural history, anthropology, and 
materials conservation. 

The Smithsonian Institution, a name first formed in the Smithson will, 
today includes 16 museums and galleries and the National Zoological Park 
that were visited nearly 30 million times this past year. Millions more 
visited the Institution's traveling exhibitions and the Smithsonian 
homepage — www.si.edu— the gateway to a new world of information 
transmission and sharing. 

The collections that form the basis for the knowledge that 
Mr. Smithson sought to increase and diffuse contain about 140 million 
objects, works of art, and specimens from nature, 122 million of which are 
in the National Museum of Natural History. The Smithsonian conducts 
research in its museums, at specialized facilities in eight states and the 
Republic of Panama, and at field sites around the world. 

The most familiar products of Smithsonian research are its 
exhibitions. None better illustrate the fusion of research and education, of 
science and art, than the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems 
and Minerals, the final section of which — "Stories Rocks Tell" — will open in 
November 1998 at the National Museum of Natural History. Featuring the 
Hope Diamond rotating in a specially designed case, the hall includes 
galleries dedicated to plate tectonics, mining, the birth and evolution of our 
solar system, and rocks, complete with explanations of the effects of wind, 
water, heat, and internal pressure on their formation. 

Another aspect of Institutional research is focused currently at the 
southern Arizona base camp of the Whipple Observatory, where the 
conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope is nearing completion. A single, 
6.5-meter mirror, having more than double the light-gathering power of the 
six-mirror original and a field of view several hundred times larger, will be 



taken up the mountain this fall. With its first light expected in December, 
the telescope will keep scientists at the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory in the forefront of optical and infrared astrophysical research 
well into the new century. 

At the National Air and Space Museum, "Star Wars: The Magic of 
Myth," commemorates the 20 th anniversary of the "Star Wars" trilogy. 
Artwork objects and concept drawings present original artifacts and scenes 
from each film and illustrate the technical and philosophical influence of 
classical mythology in the "Star Wars" trilogy. A classic in its own time, 
"Star Wars" has contributed greatly to the overall increase in visitation that 
the Smithsonian recently has experienced. 

Over the course of the past year, visitors have been treated to a 
veritable buffet of other events. Among these has been the first in a series 
of concerts by the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra to mark next 
year's 100 th anniversary of the birth of Duke Ellington. Also available has 
been an abundance of exhibitions, selections from which only begin to 
suggest the range, indeed, the ubiquity, of the Smithsonian: 

"Posters American Style," National Museum of American Art 
"George C. Marshall: A Soldier of Peace," National Portrait Gallery 
"Whistler and the Leylands," Freer Gallery of Art 
"George Segal, A Retrospective: Sculptures, Paintings, Drawings," 

Hirshhorn Museum & Sculpture Garden 
"Olowe of Ise: A Yoruba Sculptor to Kings," National Museum of 

African Art 
"The Jewels of Lalique," International Gallery 

"Our Town: Mural Art of the New Deal Era," National Postal Museum 
"Speak to My Heart," Anacostia Museum and Center for African 

American History and Culture at the Arts and Industries 

Building. 

The Star Spangled Banner, the Institution's most venerable exhibit, 
attracted the largest corporate gift in Smithsonian history. The President 
and First Lady helped to celebrate that gift, which will assist in the long- 
term care and preservation of the flag, and to honor its donor, New York 
designer Ralph Lauren. 

A combination of appropriations and gifts has supported the four- 
year-long renovation of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, and 



its stunning Design Resource Center that opened in June 1998. With its 
state-of-the-art environmental systems and storage equipment, the Center 
is a model for managing museum collections and making them more 
accessible to the public, while also maintaining the integrity of historic 
structures. 

The Institution's new affiliations program will be bringing the 
Smithsonian into localities all across America. In addition to Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, preliminary agreements relating to museum collections and 
exhibitions have been reached with San Antonio and Arlington, Texas; 
Bisbee and Scottsdale, Arizona; Miami, Florida; Long Beach, San Jose, and 
Oakland, California; Providence, Rhode Island; St. Louis, Missouri; San 
Juan, Puerto Rico; and Washington DC. 

To become part of localities around the world, the Smithsonian in all 
of its parts is continuing to move objects, databases, research and 
collections information, virtual exhibitions, lesson plans, and visitor services 
to the Internet. The astonishing acceleration of Internet usage by people, 
particularly in the United States, who reflect an increasing range of age, 
gender, ethnicity, and culture, promises fulfillment of the global mandate in 
that one sentence of Mr. Smithson's will. 



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FY 2000 BUDGET REQUEST 

The FY 2000 budget request of the Smithsonian, which assumes 
receipt of the full FY 1999 Congressional request, is based on the 
Institution's strategic plan, which is included in the Appendix, and on its 
FY 2000 performance plan, which follows this section. Consistency 
between the Smithsonian's budget request and its mission, goals, 
strategies, and measures is the most effective way of ensuring that 
anticipated results are met. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian's request for all operating and capital 
accounts totals $478.8 million, an increase of $59 million above the 
FY 1999 request pending in Congress. The Institution has included in its 
request the consolidation of its capital accounts. This merges the 
Construction and Improvements, National Zoological Park, account with the 
Repair and Restoration and Construction accounts, and moves the Minor 
Construction, Alterations, and Modifications and Planning elements of the 
Construction account to the Repair and Restoration account. This 
consolidation will unify all repair and restoration activities in a single 
account and accomplish the same with construction activities. Institution 
staff will work with the Office of Management and Budget to accomplish 
this consolidation. 

With the consolidated accounts, the Institution's FY 2000 request 
includes $393.3 million for Salaries and Expenses, $63.5 million for Repair, 
Restoration, and Alteration of Buildings, and $22.0 million for Construction. 
A summary of the request is provided in the table at the end of this section. 

Salaries and Expenses 

The Salaries and Expenses (S&E) request includes $19.6 million in 
mandatory increases to sustain daily operations of the Institution. These 
increases are for additional costs associated with necessary pay, the 
conversion of Civil Service Retirement System employees to the Federal 
Employees Retirement System, utilities and communications, rental space, 
accessibility improvements, implementation of requirements of the Panama 
Canal Treaty, and extraordinary inflation. These increases are beyond the 
Institution's control and account for approximately 54 percent of the total 
S&E increase requested for FY 2000. 



In addition, the Smithsonian has identified priority program 
requirements for FY 2000 as follows: 

• Collections preparation ($2.0 million) - to prepare artifacts for relocation 
from the Garber facility to the Dulles Center of the National Air and 
Space Museum. 

• National Museum of the American Indian ($5.0 million) - to support 
operations at the Cultural Resources Center (CRC), the CRC move, Mall 
operations, and Mall exhibits development ($7,992 million), offset by 
one-time funds requested in fiscal year 1999 for CRC equipment and 
furnishings (-$2,992 million). 

• Information management resources ($2.0 million) - to further develop 
Web-based programming, based on the Institution's exhibitions, 
research, and collections. 

• Conservation biology ($1.5 million) - to enhance research by 
coordinating efforts across the Institution's four biological research 
institutes 

• Exhibition renewal ($2.0 million) - to provide funds for exhibition 
research, planning, and preliminary design. 

• Asian Pacific American programming ($0,295 million) - to establish an 
Institution-wide funding program to support activities designed to 
strengthen existing research, exhibitions, and programs that feature 
Asian Pacific American heritage. 

• Major Scientific Instrumentation ($1.6 million) - to establish a Field 
Emission Transmission Electron Microscope Lab at the National Museum 
of Natural History. 

• Modernization of the Institution's security system ($2.0 million). 

Specific details of each requirement are provided in the Salaries and 
Expenses section of this request. 



Capital Accounts 

The request for the Repair, Restoration and Alteration of Facilities 
account ($63.5 million) will help achieve a balance between correcting the 
unacceptable condition of four of the oldest buildings at the Smithsonian 
and maintaining the current condition of other Institutional facilities through 
systematic renewal and repair. For FY 2000, this account includes Minor 
Construction, Alterations, Modifications, and Planning. National Zoological 
Park renovations, repairs, alterations, and modifications also are included in 
this account. 

The Smithsonian's Construction request ($22.0 million) includes the 
final increment of funding for the Mall museum building of the National 
Museum of the American Indian, as well as funding for facilities at the 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, and the National Zoological Park. 

Specific details of each requirement are provided in the Capital 
Accounts section of this request. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FY 2000 BUDGET REQUEST 
BY APPROPRIATION ACCOUNT 



FTE 



SALARIES AND EXPENSES 



FY 1999 Congressional Request 



4,371 



$357,300,000 



FY 2000 Changes: 






Mandatory Increases for Sustaining Base Operations 

Necessary Pay and Benefits: 

. Annualization of FY 1999 Pay Raises 

. Proposed FY 2000 Pay Raises 
Retirement System Conversion 

. Workers' Compensation 
Utilities, Communications and Postage 
Rental Space 

Panama Canal Treaty Implementation 
Extraordinary Inflation for Library Materials 
Accessibility Program 

Program Changes 

Collections Preparation - Dulles Center 

National Museum of the American Indian 
fil Non-recurring National Museum of the American Indian 

Information Management Resources 

Conservation Biology 

-Exhibition Renewal 
p- Asian Pacific American Programming 

Major Scientific Instrumentation 

Security System Modernization 
















11 


10 







2,878,000 

7,560,000 

508,000 

-82,000 

2,580,000 

4,464,000 

1,225,000 

373,000 

100,000 



2,000,000 
7,992,000 
-2,992,000 
2,000,000 
1,500,000 
2,000,000 
295,000. 
1,600,000 
2,000,000 



FY 2000 SALARIES AND EXPENSES REQUEST 



4,392 



$393,301,000 



8 





FTE 




REPAIR, RESTORATION AND ALTERATION OF BUILDINGS 


Major Capital Renewal 
Repairs, Restoration and Code Compliance 
Minor Construction, Alterations and Modifications, and 
Planning 







29,180,000 

26,820,000 

7,500,000 


FY 2000 REPAIR, RESTORATION AND ALTERATION 
REQUEST 





$ 63,500,000 


CONSTRUCTION 


National Museum of the American Indian Mall Museum 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
National Zoological Park Aquatics 








19,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1 ,000,000 


FY 2000 CONSTRUCTION REQUEST 





$ 22,000,000 


FY 2000 REQUEST, ALL ACCOUNTS 


4,392 


$478,801,000 



INTRODUCTION TO THE FY 2000 PERFORMANCE PLAN 

The Institution has a five-year strategic plan and associated 
performance plans for FY 1999 and FY 2000 that are consistent with the 
guidelines of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1 993. The 
strategic plan builds on the mission of the Smithsonian, established for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge, by setting three goals: 

• increase knowledge through research activities and use of Smithsonian 
collections 

• diffuse knowledge through exhibitions, publications, programs, 
electronic communications, and affiliations and through improvements in 
education and museum training opportunities 

• support increased knowledge and diffusion through improvements in 
finance, management, and physical infrastructure 

The FY 2000 performance plan includes seven goals that are tied 
directly to programs: research and collections management; education, 
public programs and exhibitions; administration; and facilities and security. 
Each of the performance goals is also directly related to the strategic goals 
and objectives of the Institution. A copy of the strategic plan is included in 
the Appendix. 

The goals cited in the FY 2000 performance plan reflect specific 
activities in which the Institution and its units will engage during FY 2000 
in order to progress toward achieving the Institution's strategic goals. The 
measures and milestones included in the plan will enable the Smithsonian to 
gauge its progress during FY 2000 in reaching its strategic goals, and will 
also provide important information about whether strategic goals need to be 
adjusted in future years. Performance measured against the goals and 
targets for FY 2000 will be reviewed by Smithsonian management at the 
end of the fiscal year, and results will be reported to OMB and the 
Congress. 

As the process matures, it is anticipated that the annual performance 
plan will serve two critical purposes. First, as a tool to assess performance 
and progress in key areas, it will enable Smithsonian managers to make 
strategic and operational decisions based on accurate and relevant data. 
Second, it will enable the Institution to communicate to the public, the 



11 



Executive Branch, and Congress the results and achievements of the 
Smithsonian's programmatic efforts in support of its mission. 

The following section outlines goals and strategies for performance in 
FY 2000, as well as measures to assess the Institution's success. Also 
provided is the breakdown of resources requested in the FY 2000 budget 
related to the appropriate goals, an update of FY 1999 strategies, and 
inclusion of funding sources to identify the nature of the public/private 
partnership. 



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biological invasions; compare 
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database in National 
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Expand inventory of alien 
plant species in Hawaii 
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to 

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1 


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fall below the acceptable 
level 


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MTBD 
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buildings fall below 
the acceptable level 


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standards for system components 
Deliver master design plan 
Deliver acceptance procedures plan 
Deliver and accept card access 
master database, photo pass and 
ID system 


Baseline as 
of 10/1/98 


Two 
buildings 
below the 
acceptable 
level 


Strategy 


Continue planning and 
implementing the 
systematic renewal and 
repair of facilities to ensure 
all major buildings are 
within an acceptable 
performance range, as 
defined by the Building 
Research Board of the 
National Research Council 


Provide improved security 
system 



in 

CM 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
SALARIES AND EXPENSES 



Summary of FY 2000 Change 



FY 1999 Request to Congress 



$357,300,000 



FY 2000 Increases/Decreases: 



Mandatory Costs - 



FY 2000 Requirements 

FY 1999 Non-Recurring Costs 

Net Mandatory Cost Increases 



$19,688,000 
(82,000) 



$19,606,000 



Program Increases - 



FY 2000 Requested Increases 
FY 1999 Non-Recurring Costs 
Net Program Increases 



$19,387,000 
(2,992,000) 



$16,395,000 



FY 2000 Request to OMB 



$393,301,000 



27 



SALARIES AND EXPENSES 



FY 1998 Appropriation 


$ 333,408,000 


FY 1 999 Estimate 


$ 357,300,000 


FY 2000 Estimate $393,301,000 



This section provides specific details about the Institution's Salaries 
and Expenses budget request for FY 2000. Of the total increase requested, 
approximately 54 percent is attributable to mandatory costs for sustaining 
base operations and the remainder is for priority program requirements for 
critical ongoing projects within the Institution. 

MANDATORY INCREASES FOR SUSTAINING BASE OPERATIONS 

The Smithsonian Institution seeks additional funds for costs that are 
beyond its control to manage. These costs result from legislatively 
mandated pay increases; conversion of CSRS employees to FERS; 
increases in utilities, communications, and rental space; the transfer of 
ownership of the Panama Canal; escalating costs of library materials; and 
accessibility improvements. Of the requested increases, non-recurring 
workers' compensation costs are being returned. The Institution requests a 
net increase of $19,606,000 for these mandatory costs, as shown below. 

Salary and Related Costs: 

Annualization of FY 1999 Pay Raises $ 2,878,000 

Proposed FY 2000 Pay Raises 7,560,000 

Conversion from CSRS to FERS 508,000 

Non-recurring Workers' Compensation (82,000) 

Subtotal, Salary and Related Costs $10,864,000 

Other Costs: 

Utilities, Communications, and Postage , $ 2,580,000 

Rental Increases 4,464,000 

Panama Canal Treaty Implementation 1,225,000 
Extraordinary Inflation for Library Materials 373,000 

Accessibility Improvements 100,000 

Subtotal, Other Costs $ 8,742,000 

Total Mandatory Increases $19,606,000 



28 



Salary and Related Costs - The Institution requests $10,864,000 for higher 
projected salary and benefits costs in FY 2000 for staff as described 
below. A line-item display of the Necessary Pay components of these costs 
also is provided. 

• Annualization of FY 1999 Pay Raises: $2,878,000 to annualize the 
costs of the anticipated 3.6 percent January 1999 pay raise. 

• Proposed FY 2000 Pay Raises: $7,560,000 to fully fund the anticipated 
4.4 percent January 2000 pay raise for three-quarters of a year. 

• Conversion from Civil Service Retirement System to Federal Employees 
Retirement System: $508,000 to cover the costs of CSRS participants' 
converting to FERS as a result of legislation allowing such conversions. 

• Non-recurring Workers' Compensation: $82,000 for the return of funds 
associated with excess Workers' Compensation costs. The FY 1999 bill 
for the Institution's Federal portion ($1,984,000) covers actual 
expenses incurred for the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. 
With $2,066,000 in its base for workers' compensation, the 
Institution's FY 2000 request includes a reduction of $82,000 in non- 
recurring costs. 



29 



FY 2000 Necessary Pay Costs 



(Dollars in Thousands) 








UNIT 


FY 1999 
Pay Raise 


FY 2000 
Pay Raise 


Total 

Necessary 

Pay 


Anacostia Museum 


14 


37 


51 


Archives of American Art 


19 


48 


67 


Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery of Art 


57 


151 


208 


Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 


14 


35 


49 


Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 


26 


69 


95 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 


42 


110 


152 


National Air and Space Museum 


144 


379 


523 


National Museum of African Art 


34 


89 


123 


National Museum of American Art 


84 


219 


303 


National Museum of American History 


216 


567 


783 


National Museum of the American Indian 


93 


245 


338 


National Museum of Natural History 


405 


1,062 


1,467 


National Portrait Gallery 


59 


153 


212 


National Zoological Park 


210 


550 


760 


Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 


146 


386 


532 


Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education 


30 


79 


109 


Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 


31 


79 


110 


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


90 


238 


328 


Communications and Educational Programs 


50 


129 


179 


Office of Exhibits Central 


25 


67 


92 


Museum Support Center 


28 


74 


102 


Smithsonian Institution Archives 


15 


41 


56 


Smithsonian Institution Libraries 


61 


163 


224 


Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


28 


72 


100 


Administration 


293 


772 


1,065 


Office of Protection Services 


354 


933 


1,287 


Office of Physical Plant 


310 


813 


1,123 


TOTAL NECESSARY PAY 


2,878 


7.560 


10,438 



30 



Utilities, Communications, and Postage - The Institution requests an 
increase of $2,580,000 for utilities, communications, and postage in 
FY 2000 to cover additional costs attributable to new facilities, increased 
consumption, and projected rate increases. The following table displays 
estimates from FY 1998 through FY 2000. Detailed explanations of each 
line item follow. 

Federal Utilities, Communications, and Postage Costs 
FY 1998 - FY 2000 



(Dollars in Thousands) 


FY 1998 
Estimate 


FY 1999 
Estimate 


FY 2000 
Estimate 


Electricity 


10,889 


11,106 


1 1 ,404 


Steam 


3,242 


3,470 


3,412 


Gas 


1,295 


1,527 


1,591 


Fuel Oil/Water 


427 


437 


454 


DC Gov't Water/Sewer 


2,520 


2,055 


3,247 


Communications/Networks 


7,841 


8,697 


9,697 


Postage 


2,492 


2,250 


2,317 


Total 


28,706 


29,542 


32,122 


Base ' 


28,706 


29,542 


29,542 


Surplus/(Deficit) 








(2,580) 



1 FY 1 998 base includes a one-time amount for NMAI communications. 

Electricity - The major component of the Utilities account is 
electricity. In addition to lighting and office equipment, electricity powers 
the machinery that provides cooling for Smithsonian buildings. A vigorous 
energy management program has allowed the Institution to maintain 
consistent electrical consumption levels throughout most facilities. The 
most significant element of the program is the installation of automated 
central controls on most building systems that automatically cycle motors 
and pumps on and off as needed to limit consumption during high-use or 
high-rate periods and during unoccupied hours. The installation of energy- 
efficient lighting in museums and storage facilities also contributed to 
savings in electricity. The FY 2000 estimate reflects a three percent 
inflation rate and a small increase in costs associated with the Potomac 
Electric Power Company request for a rate increase of five percent in 
Maryland. 



31 



Steam - Steam is used primarily for heating Smithsonian facilities on 
the Mall and in New York, year-round humidification, and hot water 
production. Maintaining an interior environment conducive to the 
preservation of artifacts requires large steam consumption. The FY 2000 
request reflects a decrease in steam costs due to increases in reimbursable 
billing for steam consumption for concessions operating within Smithsonian 
facilities. 

Gas - Natural gas is used for heating and cooling at most facilities 
that are not in the Mall area. The FY 2000 request includes an overall three 
percent cost increase based on past experience and on a modest increase 
in usage for these facilities. 

Fuel Oil/Water - The FY 2000 estimate assumes a decrease in fuel 
oil costs because of the use of natural gas as the primary heating fuel in 
most facilities off the Mall. The request assumes an increase in water 
consumption and a three percent inflation rate for water and sewer costs 
for satellite storage facilities in Maryland and Virginia. 

DC Government Water/Sewer - The FY 2000 estimate for water and 
sewer costs levied by the District of Columbia Government is based on 
cost projections provided by the District in FY 1998. The request also 
includes anticipated charges based on a 42 percent rate increase effective 
April 1997. 

Communications/Networks - The FY 2000 estimate for 
communications includes funds to support inflationary increases in voice 
and data communications infrastructure and services, to meet new Federal 
requirements for conversion of radio communications to shared radio 
frequencies, and to replace antiquated components of the communications 
infrastructure in order to provide essential new services such as high-speed 
Internet access to digitized information of interest to the public. 

Postage - The FY 2000 estimate for postage reflects a projected 
increase of three percent to cover the cost of an anticipated increase in 
volume for the Institution. 



32 



Rental of Space ($4,464,000) 

Central Rent - The Institution requests $3,874,000 for increased 
expenses in the central rental account ($374,000) and for NMAA/NPG rent 
for swing space ($3,500,000). 

Leased space in the Washington DC, New York, and Boston areas 
provides critical collection housing and storage, as well as space for the 
Institution's exhibition, education, research, and administrative offices. The 
request reflects projected cost increases in base rent operating and real 
estate charges. 

Leased space is needed to relocate temporarily occupants of the 
Patent Office Building (National Museum of American Art and National 
Portrait Gallery). A major capital renewal project is scheduled to begin in 
the year 2000. Renovation of the building cannot proceed until staff are 
relocated and collections are removed. An increase of $20 million justified 
in the Repair, Restoration and Alterations section of this budget request 
will support major capital renewal of the Patent Office Building. 

The following table reflects projected costs for Federal central rental 
space for FY 1998 through FY 2000. 

Federal Central Rental Costs 
FY 1998 - FY 2000 



(Dollars in Thousands) 


FY 1998 
Estimate 


FY 1999 
Estimate 


FY 2000 
Estimate 


Office Space 


3,160 


3,259 


3,455 


Warehouse Space/Other 


2,684 


2,974 


3,152 


NMAA/NPG Swing Space 


— 


— 


3,500 


Total 


5,844 


6,233 


10,107 


Base 


5,844 


6,233 


6,233 


Surplus/(Deficit) 








(3,874) 




SAO Rent - The Institution requests $590,000 for increased costs of 
rent for Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) operations in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Of this amount $100,000 is necessary to 
cover uncontrollable increases in rent at current Cambridge facilities and 
$170,000 is necessary to obtain urgent, additional staff space there. An 



33 



37^ 
JTfO 

"3 *3 



increase of $320,000 is necessary to rent additional space in Hilo, Hawaii, 
for the Submillimeter Array Project. 

Implementation of the Panama Canal Treaty - Funding of $1,225,000 is 
requested for FY 2000 to support the increase in operating costs at the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama that result from 
implementation of the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty. Under its terms and 
conditions, the United States will turn over responsibility for the operation 
of the Panama Canal and its related facilities to the Republic of Panama on 
December 31, 1999. STRI is authorized to continue its tropical research 
mission there for 20 years beyond 2000 under a 1997 agreement with the 
Republic of Panama that is renewable for another 20 years. Nonetheless, in 
the year 2000 the labor laws of Panama will become applicable to locally 
hired employees of STRI, which will have to make changes in its personnel 
system in order to comply with those laws. The results of a commissioned 
study indicate that the cost of adjusting the local employment system of 
STRI for FY 2000 is $1,225,000. 

Extraordinary Inflation for Library Materials - For FY 2000 the Institution 
requests $373,000 to counter the effects of continuing inflationary 
increases in book and journal purchases. Of this amount, $350,000 is 
requested for the Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) and $23,000 is 
requested for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) library. 

Funding for SIL is requested to acquire important new scientific 
journals, expand access to electronic resources for SI research, and 
maintain its ability to purchase monographs in many fields. The mission- 
critical demand for SIL to keep current its increasingly costly scientific 
journal collection now makes it nearly impossible to purchase the 
monographs specifically required by SI staff. Because more than 30 
percent of the Smithsonian's scholars work in book-dependent disciplines, 
this shortfall is causing irreparable damage to research efforts. Scholarly 
monographs and other primary research materials are unlikely to appear in 
digital form in the foreseeable future. 

The funding requested for SAO is to renew core journal 
subscriptions required to support research and education activities. 

Lack of funding to combat more than ten years of double-digit 
inflation, combined with chronically unfavorable foreign exchange rates, 
has seriously jeopardized the Institution's library research holdings. In this 
period, journal inflation averaged 11.9 percent annually, and reached as 
much as 16 percent. The Institution, which projects a rise in journal prices 

34 



of at least 10 percent in FY 1999, already spends 33 percent less on direct 
support for individual researchers than other academic institutions. Without 
funding to cover current inflation, book and journal purchasing power will 
continue to decline. 

Accessibility Improvements - While the Institution has made substantial 
progress in correcting inaccessible buildings, Smithsonian exhibitions, 
publications, and media designed before 1990 often and inadvertently 
present barriers to many people with disabilities. Exhibition labels that are 
too high, circulation routes with low light levels, videos without captions 
and audio description, and print-only publications limit the use of the 
Institution's extraordinary resources by individuals with mobility limitations, 
hearing and vision loss, and cognitive disabilities. Nor can people who are 
older, have temporary disabilities, or have children in strollers benefit fully 
from Smithsonian programs where these deficiencies exist. 

In 1996 all Smithsonian units made an accessibility assessment of 
existing exhibitions, publications, and audio-visual productions and 
developed five-year plans for correcting deficiencies. Certain areas have 
become common priorities across the Institution: 

• Providing alternative publication format, such as large print, audio tape, 
braille, and disk 

• Making exhibition labels and signs more readable and legible 

• Providing accessible exhibition furniture such as seating and cases at 
appropriate heights. 

Some units initiated work in these areas during FY 1997 but a great deal 
remains to be corrected. 

Funding of $100,000 is requested to enable the Institution to 
provide support to high-priority, public-oriented projects across the 
Institution. When combined with base funds requested in FY 1999, this 
increase would bring the central Institutional pool to an amount sufficient 
to place into motion corrective actions that will serve the Institution into 
the new millennium. 



35 



SUMMARY OF PROGRAM CHANGES 

To ensure excellence in its public programs and facilities, strengthen 
its pre-eminence in scientific and scholarly research, capitalize on new 
opportunities for expanded outreach, and increase security of its valuable 
collections, the Institution requires funding for the following critical 
ongoing projects in FY 2000: 

The National Air and Space Museum preparation and preservation of 
collections for transfer to the Dulles Center ($2,000,000). This request 
supports inspection, inventory, and preservation of artifacts. 

The National Museum of the American Indian move of collections in New 
York to the Cultural Resources Center (CRC) in Suitland, Maryland 
(11 FTEs and $7,992,000). This request supports the physical move of 
artifacts, additional operations of the CRC, development of inaugural 
exhibits at the Mall Museum, and expanded outreach activities, including 
community services and publications. This request is offset by $2,992,000 
in one-time funding provided in FY 1999. 

Information Management Resources ($2,000,000). This request supports 
efforts to maximize the Smithsonian's ability to develop and maintain 
programming and research information available on the Web, including 
retrospective cataloging, the addition of contextual information, and 
document scanning. 

Conservation Biology (10 FTEs and $1,500,000). This request supports the 
enhancement, integration, and further development of three vital and 
integrative ecological programs addressing invasive alien species, marine 
ecosystems, and conservation of vulnerable terrestrial habitats. 

Exhibition Renewal ($2,000,000). This request supports the creation of an 
exhibition renovation fund to provide seed money for research, planning, 
and preliminary design for the development and renewal of aging, 
permanent exhibitions across the Institution, and to attract potential private 
donors. 

Asian Pacific American Programming ($295,000). This request supports 
the establishment of a pool of funds to strengthen existing research, 
collections, exhibitions, and programs that reflect Asian Pacific American 
heritage throughout the Institution. 



36 



Major Scientific Instrumentation - Field Emission Transmission Electron 
Microscope Laboratory ($1,600,000). This request supports the 
construction of a laboratory and development and purchase of equipment 
to analyze extraterrestrial particles within meteorites and from upcoming 
NASA space missions. 

Security System ($2,000,000). This request supports the Security 
Modernization Program and the phased replacement of the outdated, 
automated Smithsonian Institution Proprietary Security System, including 
engineering support, training, installation, testing, and documentation. 

These initiatives are described in further detail in the line-item 
descriptions that follow. 



37 



ANACOSTIA MUSEUM AND CENTER FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY 

AND CULTURE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


25 


1,784 


4 


767 


1 


42 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,785 


4 


895 


1 


45 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,836 


4 


898 















ABSTRACT - The Anacostia Museum and Center for African American 
History and Culture explores the heritage and cultural expressions of people 
of African descent living in the Americas. The Museum presents exhibitions 
in the Arts and Industries Building and at its facility in Southeast 
Washington. It also sponsors an array of educational and scholarly 
programs and activities. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Anacostia Museum and Center for African 
American History and Culture. The Institution requires $51,000 for 
Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - The Anacostia Museum and Center for African American 
History and Culture examines and interprets Black contributions to the 
customs, traditions, and history of the Americas. The Museum collects and 
preserves historical and cultural artifacts, documents, art, and photography. 
Museum scholars develop both in-house and traveling African American- 
focused exhibitions. The Museum presents a variety of multi-faceted 
educational and scholarly programs reaching audiences ranging from 
elementary school to those with advanced degrees. 

Research - The Museum has embarked upon new areas of research 
which will result in exhibitions, programs, and publications. Staff have 
begun to inventory museum, library, and archival collections focusing on 
African American dance as well as the dance traditions of Africa and the 
Caribbean. They have completed both a survey of the personal holdings of 
prominent dance scholars and plans for exploring African American dance 



38 



companies and choreographers in Washington DC. A multi-year project 
exploring the legacy and work of Katherine Dunham, perhaps the nation's 
most celebrated African American dancer and choreographer, is in progress. 

A 1 5-member advisory board composed of scholars, chefs, and 
critics has been established for an upcoming exhibition entitled, "With 
These Hands: African American Food and Cultural Traditions." The 
Smithsonian Institution's Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 
and the National Council of Negro Women are partners in this endeavor. 

Exhibitions - "Speak To My Heart: Communities of Faith and 
Contemporary African American Life" brought new and repeat visitors to 
the Arts and Industries Building. Supported by the Lily Endowment and the 
Henry Luce Foundation, the exhibit has been featured prominently in the 
national media and strengthens the Museum's connections to the African 
American spiritual communities. In addition, the Museum presented "In 
Search of Balance: The Artist Scholar" featuring the work of six artists 
known for their work in higher education, including Dr. David Driskell, chair 
of the National Museum of African Art Commission. It also showcased the 
work of African American women artists in a traveling exhibition, "Three 
Generations of African American Women Sculptors: A Study in Paradox." 
The groundbreaking exhibition, "Man Made: African American Men in the 
Quilting Tradition" was critically acclaimed for providing new insight into an 
American cultural expression. 

Education, Outreach, and Special Events -The Museum continues to 
break new ground in the development and presentation of special and 
commemorative events. The 1998 Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday 
observance featured Arthur Mitchell, artistic director of the Dance Theatre 
of Harlem. Carnival 98, the Museum's first fund raiser brought more than 
500 masked and costumed participants to the Smithsonian Castle for which 
NOVUS Services and the Canadian Embassy were the leading supporters. A 
series of workshops and a follow-up conference focusing on Carnival 
traditions in Caribbean community life were held before and after the event. 

The Museum's partnership with the Lucy Ellen Moten Elementary 
School flourished in its sixth year. A student discovered the previously 
unknown location of the grave site of the noted educator and the story was 
prominently featured in the Washington Times. 



39 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust Funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of administrative personnel, development activities 
and exhibition-related costs. Donor/Sponsor designated funds provide 
support for specific exhibitions, programs, projects, and events. 







40 



ARCHIVES OF AMERICAN ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,571 





160 


19 


659 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,619 





159 


6 


526 








FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


24 


1,686 





146 


6 


535 









ABSTRACT - The Archives of American Art (AAA), a national research 
repository with reference centers in Washington DC, New York City, 
Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, holds the world's largest 
collection of archival materials relating to the history of the American 
visual arts. This collection includes original manuscripts, photographs, 
works of art on paper, and tape-recorded oral and video interviews. The 
collection is housed in Washington DC, with microfilm copies of many 
documents made available in the reference centers and through national 
and international library loans. The Archives actively seeks out, collects, 
preserves, and microfilms original source materials for study by scholars, 
students, curators, and collectors, and encourages research in American 
art and cultural history through publications, symposia, lectures, and other 
public programs. The catalog of the Archives' holdings is available on the 
Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) via the 
Internet, and the Research Library Information Network (RLIN). 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Archives of American Art. The Institution 
requires $67,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line 
item. 

PROGRAM - AAA collects, preserves, and makes available for study the 
records, original papers, photographs, diaries, and oral history interviews 
of artists, craftsmen, collectors, dealers, critics, museums, and other 
institutions. In FY 1998, AAA continued to meet its goal of increasing 
accessibility to the collections through a variety of means, including the 
processing of papers, the publication of finding aids, the display of original 



41 



documents in exhibitions, website enhancement, and other forms of 
outreach. 

Research - In FY 1998, AAA employed technology to increase 
access for its users when it unveiled its newly updated and revised 
website. The site, which includes a link to the Smithsonian's "Cyber 
Safari," encompasses various categories, including the history of the 
Archives, its collections, membership information, list of publications in 
print, and its on-going programs, as well as links to the online catalog and 
reference desk. The revised site also featured for the first time a thematic 
display of selected works from the collections at the same they were on 
exhibition. Since the unveiling of the new website in early FY 1998, the 
Archives has experienced a 25 percent increase in inquiries from scholars 
both nationally and internationally. Other enhancements of the site 
included the Web versions of the publications The Papers of African 
American Artists and The Papers of Latino and Latin American Artists, an 
online Guide to Art Gallery Records, and the online version of the 
Richard Diebenkorn oral history transcript. 

Also in FY 1998, AAA completed the Name Authority Project, 
wherein its paper-based name authority file was converted to a machine- 
readable format, providing online access to names, biographical data, and 
cross-references. The Archives improved interlibrary loan services for a 
wide range of borrowers by barcoding 8,000 reels of microfilm and 
installing software to track the movement of reels throughout the 
Interlibrary Loan System. 

Collections Acquisitions - In FY 1998, the Archives made significant 
additions to its holdings of over 13 million documents. Among these were 
the papers of Hans Hofmann (1880-1966), an Abstract Expressionist who 
achieved fame and influence through his abstract paintings and by the 
school he established in America after fleeing Nazi Germany. The Archives 
also acquired the final installment of the papers of Herbert Waide Hemphill, 
Jr. (1929-1998), folk art collector, founder of the Museum of American 
Folk Art, and Smithsonian benefactor. A major addition to the collections is 
the papers of the sculptor/painter Claire Falkenstein (1908-1997), a prolific 
and internationally known artist, whose achievements included the 
commission for the gates at the Venice home (now museum) of 
Peggy Guggenheim. 



42 



Funds from the Institution-wide pool for Latino programming enabled 
the Archives to complete the first phase of an oral history project in Miami, 
Florida to interview prominent Cuban-American artists. Funds also supported 
a project to produce video interviews with Puerto Rican artists and to conduct 
a comprehensive survey of art-related manuscript materials in Puerto Rico. 

Collections Management - AAA made significant progress in its goal 
to increase accessibility to collections with the completion of several 
processing projects. Among these was the processing and microfilming of 
the Rockwell Kent papers (103 reels) and the publication of A Finding Aid 
to the Rockwell Kent Papers. Also processed were the records of the 
American Federation of Arts and the Downtown Gallery. Finding aids for 
both collections are forthcoming, as well as for the Holger Cahill Papers, 
the Abraham Rattner papers, and the Tomas Ybarra-Frausto papers. The 
finding aids comprise a significant resource for researchers in American art 
history and complement the reference services that are central to the 
Archives' mission. 

Publications and Outreach - The Archives of American Art Journal 
publishes scholarly articles showcasing AAA's collections, as well as book 
reviews and reports from AAA's regional centers on recent important 
acquisitions. In FY 1998, AAA presented "Visual Thinking: Sketchbooks 
from the Archives of American Art," featuring sketchbooks from prominent 
as well as little-known nineteenth and twentieth century American artists. 
The sketchbooks, which were also presented online on the AAA website, 
surprise in their variety and reveal intimate glimpses into the workings of 
the creative process. Also in FY 1998, the Archives displayed "El 
Movimiento: Selections from the Tomas Ybarra-Frausto Research Material 
on Chicano Art." Dr. Ybarra-Frausto, a scholar and former chair of the 
Smithsonian Council and of the Smithsonian Latino Oversight Committee, 
donated to the Archives over 20,000 items consisting of correspondence, 
photographs, and rare printed material gathered for his research on 
Chicano art. These papers constitute a major addition to the holdings 
already documented in the Archives' publication, The Papers of Latino and 
Latin American Artists (1 996). 

The Archives manages an active program of outgoing loans to 
museums and other scholarly institutions, and continues its tradition of 
providing educational opportunities to an ethnically diverse population 
through internships and fellowships in Washington DC, New York City, and 
Boston. 



43 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - Trust funds provide support for salaries 
and benefits of personnel, fundraising, and support for AAA projects and 
programs. In FY 1998, the Archives received the final installment of a 
three-year, $240,000 grant from The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc. to 
process and microfilm three major collections. Throughout the year, donors 
made numerous gifts toward the matching of a $500,000 challenge grant 
from The Brown Foundation, Inc., to endow the publication of the Archives 
Journal. 



44 



ARTHUR M. SACKLER GALLERY/FREER GALLERY OF ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


77 


5,760 





1,211 


44 


6,632 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


77 


5,851 





927 


44 


4,466 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


77 


6,059 





305 


44 


4,800 









ABSTRACT - The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery was founded in 1982 (opened 
to the public in 1987) to house a gift of Asian art from Dr. Arthur M. 
Sackler and to develop an active program of loan exhibitions. The Freer 
Gallery of Art, founded in 1906 (opened to the public in 1923) as the first 
art museum of the Smithsonian Institution, had its origin in Charles Lang 
Freer's gift of Asian art and specialized collection of American art. Both 
museums actively seek to study and celebrate the historical and 
contemporary achievements of the arts of Asia. 

Administered by a single staff, the combined resources of the Freer 
and Sackler galleries form an important international center dedicated to 
ongoing collection, preservation, study and exhibition of Asian art, as well 
as to educational programs that increase public awareness. While the Freer 
Gallery neither lends objects nor exhibits works borrowed from museums 
or individuals, the Sackler Gallery both lends from its collections and 
borrows works to augment its own holdings. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Freer 
Gallery of Art. The Institution requires $208,000 for Necessary Pay for 
existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - The Sackler and Freer galleries both focus on the artistic 
traditions of Asia. The Sackler Gallery extends this focus to the present 
day, embracing a wider range of media and artistic expression, while the 
Freer Gallery emphasizes the major historical artistic traditions from the 
beginnings of history through the 19 th century. In addition to the program 
on American art and its interrelationship with Asian traditions carried out at 



45 



the Freer Gallery, the major goal of the Freer and Sackler galleries together 
is to expand both knowledge and appreciation of Asian artistic traditions 
through exhibitions, education, research, conservation, and acquisitions. In 
addition, the galleries, with the aid of in-depth public programs related to 
exhibitions, provide wider cultural and physical contexts that aid in 
understanding the forms and complexities of Asian art. A continuing 
calendar of public programs explores both the living arts of Asia and in- 
depth aspects of individual Asian societies. 

Exhibitions - Exhibitions provide the primary link between the public 
and the diverse cultures of Asia. Exhibitions at the Sackler Gallery draw 
from public and private collections, both domestic and foreign, and from 
the Gallery's own collections. Eight new exhibitions are in development 
for FY 1999, including "Roy Lichtenstein: Paintings in the Chinese Style," 
"Devi: The Great Goddess," and "Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur." 
In addition, six exhibitions are already in planning for FY 2000 that will 
include a major overview of modern Indian art, an exhibition organized 
around music in Bronze Age China, and selections from the Gallery's Vever 
Collection of Persian and Indian painting. 

At the Freer, planning and development are currently underway for 
twelve exhibition changes scheduled for FY 1999 that will include a major 
exhibition of new acquisitions, many of which have been given in honor of 
the Freer's 75 th anniversary. Other exhibitions at the Freer continue to 
include presentations that draw from the rich resources of the Gallery's 
collections. In addition, more than a dozen exhibition changes are 
anticipated for FY 2000. 

Education - The Education Department develops curriculum materials 
in a variety of media that are related to the national collections and loan 
exhibitions and are distributed nationally. Public programs for both galleries 
reach out to varied and diverse audiences with programs that expand and 
enhance the collections and exhibitions by means of film, family programs, 
Asian music and dance, chamber music, and lectures. Teacher workshops 
and in-service programs are conducted locally and nationally. An 
educational website is frequently used and teacher materials are added to 
it on a regular basis. 

Research - The Freer and Sackler galleries share research staff and 
support facilities that together constitute an international center for 
advanced scholarly research in Asian art, as well as in specific areas of 



46 



American art in the Freer Gallery. Research provides the basis for 
exhibitions, publications, and collections acquisitions. The galleries 
disseminate research results to the public through lectures, symposia, 
collection research files, monographs, exhibitions and exhibition 
catalogues, gallery guides, and brochures. 



Conservation - Treatment of the 
collection continues in order to ensure 
and improve the physical well-being of 
the objects. Departmental research, 
which uses scientific methods to 
determine and explain the origins and 
physical nature of works of art, is 
carried out in tandem with the galleries' 
overall research effort and to aid in the 
care and treatment of the collections. 




FREER GALLERY OF ART 



Collections - In FY 1998, the two galleries together acquired 616 
objects for their collections. Among these were an important collection of 
eighty Khmer 1 2 th -13 ,h -century ceramic vessels, a 17 th -century Turkish 
cenotaph cover of silk-satin fabric, and a rare 7 th -century silver dish from 
Sogdia in Central Asia. 



Publications - The publications program of the Freer and Sackler 
galleries encompasses exhibition-related books and catalogues, Asian Art & 
Culture (a collateral book series), Occasional Papers (a series of substantial 
scholarly papers), collection catalogues, educational materials such as 
Japan: /mages and Words (for teachers), a Calendar of Events, and 
numerous brochures and gallery guides. 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - 

General Trust funds provide support to 

defray the costs of research, collection 

acquisitions, and expenses related to the 

membership program. Donor/Sponsor 

Designated funds provide support for 

costs related to specific programs and 

projects. Fundraising helps create new 

and increased sources of funding from 

the private sector. 




ARTHUR M. SACKLER GALLERY 



47 



CENTER FOR FOLKLIFE PROGRAMS AND CULTURAL STUDIES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


14 


1,756 


26 


6,960 


2 


606 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


14 


1,697 


26 


5,765 


2 


200 





500 


FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


14 


1,746 


26 


5,765 


2 


200 





2,200 



ABSTRACT - The Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 
(CFPCS) conducts scholarly research and public programs that promote 
understanding and continuity of traditional grassroots regional, ethnic, 
tribal, and occupational heritage in the United States and abroad. The 
Center maintains the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. It 
produces the annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival; Smithsonian Folkways 
Recordings; documentary films, videos, and print publications; training 
programs and educational materials; and museum and traveling exhibitions. 
The Center cooperates with Federal and state agencies to advance the 
Nation's interest in cultural matters. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural 
Studies. The Institution requires $49,000 for Necessary Pay for existing 
staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - Research - Research projects document and study the 
continuing practice of local traditions among diverse communities in 
contemporary society. Current projects examine the relationship between 
culture and grassroots economic development; cultures of immigrants to 
the United States; and cultural traditions in Wisconsin, the Mississippi 
Delta, New Hampshire, and United States/Mexico borderlands. Center 
scholars and fellows pursue research on American regional music; 
American craftspeople; the cultural impact of technological change; urban 
Latino culture; and African American, Asian American, and Native 
American traditions. 



48 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival - The Smithsonian Folklife Festival, an 
annual two-week festival held on the National Mall since 1967, educates a 
broad public about American and human cultural heritage and encourages 
tradition bearers by giving national recognition to their artistry, knowledge, 
and wisdom. The Festival provides a national and international model for 
the research-based presentation of cultural traditions. Over one million 
people visit the Festival each year, and millions more are reached by media 
coverage. In FY 1998, the Festival featured Wisconsin, the Rio Grande 
Basin, the Philippines and Philippino-Americans, the Baltic Nations and 
Baltic Americans. In FY 1999, the Festival will feature New Hampshire, 
Romania, South Africa, and a larger Rio Grande Basin program. 

The Center collaborates with economic development, tourism, 
culture, and education departments of participating states to develop 
Festival programs and remount them "back home." These programs 
catalyze local cultural efforts and include the development of educational 
materials and the sharing of archives. 

Archives and Collections - The Ralph Rinzler Archives and 
Collections contain audiotapes, records, videotapes, photographic images, 
film, and paper files documenting cultural traditions from all parts of the 
United States and most regions of the world. Holdings include the original 
master recordings of Woody Guthrie performing This Land is Your Land, 
and original master tapes of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as 
speeches and songs of major cultural importance. The collection contains 
documentation of music, occupational lore, family folklore and immigration 
stories. The Rinzler Archives contain research documentation for the 
Festival, as well as sound recordings from Folkways and other recording 
companies. 

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings - Folkways produces documentary 
recordings of American and worldwide music, performance, and verbal arts 
for retail and educational markets. Folkways includes the recordings of 
such American icons as Woody Guthrie, Leadbelly, Sonny Terry, 
Josh White, Mary Lou Williams, Mahalia Jackson, Bob Dylan, 
Albert Einstein, Margaret Mead, Langston Hughes, and thousands of 
others. In 1998, Folkways received two Grammy awards for the Anthology 
of American Folk Music and a nomination for best traditional album. The 
U.S. Postal Service issued four stamps honoring Folkways musicians. 



49 



Education - The Center develops curriculum materials and offers 
teacher training for understanding American cultural traditions. Teacher 
and student guides, recordings, and videotapes are developed in 
partnership with state education departments and professional 
associations. In FY 1998, multimedia education guides on Iowa folklife 
were distributed to 1200 schools in that state. A multimedia kit on 
traditions of the Mississippi Delta will be distributed in FY 1999. 

The Center produces numerous documentary films and videos. The 
Smithsonian Folklife Studies series consists of scholarly monographs 
coupled with documentary films, generally released to colleges and 
universities. Videos such as Wisconsin Powwow and Workers of the White 
House are distributed to schools and aired on public television. Books by 
Center staff explore the theories and methods of cultural heritage 
presentation and preservation. 

Traveling Exhibitions - The Center cooperates with the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service to produce modest traveling 
exhibitions developed from research and Festival programs. Exhibitions on 
African American sacred sound, the music of Woody Guthrie, and Maroon 
cultures of the Southern United States and the Caribbean are traveling in 
1998. A major exhibition, "Spirited Objects," will tour several U.S. cities in 
2000. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel, fundraising, and general program 
support. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs related 
to specific programs and projects. Income from sales of Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings pays staff salaries and related costs, and supports 
additional programming. 



50 



COOPER-HEWITT, NATIONAL DESIGN MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


43 


2,732 


22 


3,345 


2 


1,832 





67 


FY 1 999 
ESTIMATE 


42 


2,684 


22 


3,212 


2 


2,387 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


42 


2,779 


22 


3,243 


2 


1,487 









ABSTRACT- Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum explores the creation 
and consequences of the designed environment. Design, a process of 
shaping matter to a purpose, is a fundamental activity. The National Design 
Museum investigates the structures and effects of these products of 
design and their roles as forces for communication and change. The 
Museum is interested in all aspects of design, including urban planning, 
architecture, industrial design, landscape design, interior design, textiles, 
advertising, and graphic arts. It is a public trust founded on the principle 
that understanding the past and present will shape the future. Today the 
scale and pace of change require a new understanding — one that 
recognizes that individuals, societies, and the natural environment are 
linked through design. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. The 
Institution requires $95,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line-item. 

PROGRAM - Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, is the only museum 
in America devoted exclusively to historical and contemporary design. The 
Museum pursues its mission through exhibitions, publications, provisions 
for collections study, research, as well as educational programs for design 
professionals, the adult public, and schoolchildren. In addition, the 
Museum jointly offers, with the Parsons School of Design, a master's 
degree program in the history of decorative arts. 

Renovation - In June 1998, the Museum celebrated the completion 
of the $20 million renovation project with a grand reopening of the entire 



51 



building complex to the public. The four-year project makes the Museum 
facilities and collections more accessible to the general public and is a 
model for accomplishing significant accessibility improvements in historic 
buildings. 

Exhibitions - Highlights of the Museum's FY 1998 schedule include 
"Design for Life: A Centennial Celebration," which was formulated as an 
exposition of the Museum's mission. "The Jewels of Lalique" brought 
together more than 150 splendid pieces of jewelry gathered from museums 
and private collections around the world. "Fountains: Splash and 
Spectacle" featured drawings, photographs, video, and text panels to 
explore the design, architecture, function, and meaning of fountains from 
the Renaissance to the present. "Under the Sun: An Outdoor Exhibition of 
Light," which opened on the summer solstice, explored solar energy as a 
catalyst for practical and visionary design. 

"Opening Our Doors," an exhibition that was timed to coincide with 
the opening of the Museum's new Design Resource Center, showcased 
new acquisitions from each of the Museum's curatorial departments 
(Drawings and Prints, Textiles, Wallcoverings, Applied Arts and Industrial 
Design) and the Library. "Concerned Theatre Japan," co-sponsored by and 
on view at the American Institute of Graphic Arts, explored the vibrant 
counter-culture of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. 

Publications - During FY 1998, the National Design Museum 
produced three exhibition-related books: Design for Sports: The Cult of 
Performance edited by Akiko Bush; Graphic Design in the Mechanical Age: 
Selections from the Merrill C. Berman Collection by Deborah Rothschild, 
Ellen Lupton, and Darra Goldstein; and Fountains: Splash and Spectacle, 
Water and Design from the Renaissance to the Present edited by Marilyn 
Symmes. The Museum continues to develop and modify its website and 
this Spring won a "High 5" design award. 

Collections Activity - More than 535 objects were added to the 
collections in FY 1998. Highlights included a group of Weimar ceramics, an 
embroidered Portuguese bedcover (c.1600), and a group of Nancy 
McClelland wallpapers. A total of 124 objects were loaned to a variety of 
institutions for exhibition, conservation, and study purposes and 188 
objects were borrowed for exhibition from museums and private lenders. 



52 



Educational Programs - The conference Preserving the Architecture 
of Cuba featured an international roster of speakers and brought Cubans 
and Cuban Americans together to discuss their shared concern for Cuba's 
architectural heritage. School program highlights include the very 
successful Studio After School Programs that gave New York City high 
school students opportunities to work with designers at MTV and The Gap. 
The Museum continues to serve over 4000 elementary, high school, and 
university students through free guided exhibition tours each year. In the 
Summer of 1998, eight Peter Krueger Interns and a Lippincott & Margulies 
Intern worked in a variety of Museum departments. The Museum also 
hosted a Smithsonian Minority Intern and a Volunteer Intern. 

Research - The Museum's Library receives approximately 250 
queries per month from scholars, private individuals, designers, and 
corporate interests. About 2000 people visit the Library each year. The 
Museum named the ninth annual Peter Krueger-Christie's Fellow during 
FY 1998 to conduct research on Jean-Baptiste Huet's graphic work related 
to the decorative arts. 

NONAPPRORIATED RESOURCES - The Museum's General Trust funds are 
generated from membership. Museum Shop sales, admissions, special 
events and unrestricted donations, and they support exhibitions, 
publications, and general operating expenses. 




53 



HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


71 


4,352 


2 


1,100 





1,522 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


71 


4,444 


2 


1,057 





2,350 








FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


71 


4,596 


2 


1,096 





2,450 









ABSTRACT - The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (HMSG) was 
established as the Smithsonian's museum of modern and contemporary art 
by Public Law 89-788, signed on November 7, 1966. While the nucleus of 
the collection remains Joseph Hirshhorn's original gift, it has been greatly 
enriched by additional gifts from Mr. Hirshhorn and the 1981 bequest of 
art he had collected since 1966. Other benefactors continue to give works 
to the Museum. Purchases made from funds provided through 
appropriations, the Smithsonian's Trust funds, Mr. Hirshhorn, other private 
donors, and restricted-use sales from the permanent collection have 
continued to strengthen the collection and emphasize its contemporary 
character. Museum programming features works from the collection, 
special exhibitions, and a wide variety of public programs. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 
The Institution requires $152,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff 
funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - In addition to presenting exhibitions, the Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden manages, conserves, exhibits, and publishes its 
collection. HMSG also acquires new works for the collection and develops 
public programs for a broad audience of all ages. A new Director of 
Education Programs will be formulating an education and public program 
plan for 1999 and beyond. 

Exhibitions - Two major special exhibitions will be presented in FY 
1999. The first, which has been organized by the Museum of Modern Art 
in New York City and scheduled for the fall of 1998, is "Chuck Close," an 



54 



exhibition of the celebrated New York portraitist. In addition to appearing 
at the Hirshhorn, this exhibition is being presented at the Museum of 
Contemporary Art in Chicago and the Seattle Art Museum. The second 
exhibition, which the Hirshhorn will mount during the summer of 1999, is 
"Brice Marden: Works of the 1990s," a show organized by the Dallas 
Museum of Art which is devoted to the artist's abstract paintings and 
works on paper. 

During the winter months, a major renovation of the exhibition 
galleries' lighting system, carpeting, and wall construction will mean that 
no major special exhibition will be on view. However, the galleries will 
reopen in early spring with a rehanging of the permanent collection in 
connection with the Museum's 25th anniversary. 

In addition to the major special exhibitions, Juliao Sarmento, Sam 
Taylor-Wood, and Shazia Sikander will be presented in the Museum's 
ongoing Directions series of younger or less-established artists. 

Collections Management - Among the works acquired in FY 1 998 
were: Georg Baselitz Tragischer Kopf, 1988; Roger Brown Cancer, 1984; 
Vija Celmins Untitled (Double Moon Surface), 1 969; Richard Long Norfolk 
Flint Circle, 1992; James Turrell Milkrun, 1997; and Jeff Wall A Villager 
from Aricakoyu Arriving in Mahmutbey-lstanbul, September 1997, 1997. 

The Museum began using The Museum System (TMS), a new 
database developed in collaboration with other Smithsonian art museums, 
to share collections management information throughout the Institution and 
with the public. TMS will enable users to have online access to selected 
information on the Smithsonian's art collections. 

Public Programs - To increase visitor appreciation and understanding 
of modern and contemporary art, the Museum presents lectures, a film 
program, and a wide variety of printed materials including catalogues, 
brochures, and extended wall labels. Highlights in FY 1998 included the 
publications Stanley Spencer: An English Vision and (authored by the 
Hirshhorn) A Garden for Art: Outdoor Sculpture at the Hirshhorn Museum. 
The Spencer work was published in conjunction with the exhibition of the 
same name that opened in the fall of 1997 and in association with The 
British Council and Yale University Press. The sixth annual Mordes Lecture 
in Contemporary Art will feature Mark Rosenthal, Curator at the 
Guggenheim Museum. 



55 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel and related travel costs. In addition, 
these funds provide general support for research activities, education and 
public programs, and fundraising. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds 
provide support for costs related to specific programs and projects, such 
as collections acquisitions, public programs such as the Young at Art 
program for children and families, and exhibitions such as the Fall 1998 
exhibition, "Stanley Spencer: An English Vision" (which received support 
from Howard and Roberta Ahmanson and Fieldstead and Company), and 
the contemporary "Directions" series of exhibitions. 




56 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


214 


12,363 


1 


7,434 





6,069 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


214 


12,695 


1 


3,286 





22,105 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


214 


15,218 


1 


4,677 





24,200 









ABSTRACT - The mission of the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) is 
to memorialize the national development of aviation and space flight. It 
serves as the repository for, preserves, and displays aeronautical and space 
flight equipment and data of historical interest. The Museum provides 
educational materials and performs the necessary research for the study of 
aviation and space flight and their related technologies. In addition to its 
Mall location, NASM maintains the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration 
and Storage Facility in Suitland, Maryland. By November 1998, design work 
will be completed on the Dulles Center in Virginia which will house the 
Museum's collection and restoration facilities and enable the Museum to 
exhibit much more of its collection including its largest aircraft and 
spacecraft. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is seeking an additional $2,000,000 in 
support of collection management in preparation for the opening of the new 
Dulles Center extension in 2002. The Institution requires $523,000 for 
Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - In FY1998, NASM had over nine million visits and its website 
is accessed over 150,000 times per day. 

Research - During FY 1 998, historical research at the Museum 
resulted in improved documentation and updated information on the 
archival collections. A seminar in May 1998, "Security No More: The 
Security Implications of Global Transparency," highlighted the security 
implications of remote sensing satellites. Oral and video history interviews 
were held with pioneers in aviation and space. Published scientific results 
ranged from the use of remote sensing in conservation monitoring in Brazil 
to the formation of volcanoes on Venus. 



57 



Collections Management - During FY 1998, a new Collections 
Management Information System was selected and installed. 
Implementation of the new system, including collections documentation and 
barcoding, will continue in FY 1999. 

Preservation and Restoration - The five major aircraft projects on the 
restoration shop floor are the Aichi Seiran, the Hawker Hurricane, the SA-2 
surface to air missile, the S-1 Pitts Special "Little Stinker," and the 
Nieuport 28. The engine preservation project is approaching 50 percent 
completion with 1 1 5 of 240 engines mounted and preserved. 

Exhibitions - During FY 1998, "Star Wars: The Magic of Myth," 
examined the mythology beneath the "Star Wars" story. The Venus section 
of "Exploring the Planets" was updated to include recent images of the 
surface of Venus. The "National Transportation Safety Board" exhibition 
examined how the NTSB investigates aviation accidents and fosters 
transportation safety. Two exhibitions that opened in the June1998, are 
"Business Wings," which looks at business aviation, and "Earth Today," a 
computer-generated, continually updated image of the Earth. "Arriba: The 
History of Flight in Mexico, Central America, South America and the 
Caribbean," examines aviation in Latin America during the first century of 
flight. 

Publications and Electronic Outreach - In FY 1 998, the Museum 
published Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum, edited by 
F. Robert van der Linden. Space: Discovery and Exploration, edited by 
Martin J.Collins and Sylvia K. Kraemer, was reprinted. The Museum 
supported publication of The Golden Age Remembered: U.S. Naval 
Aviation, 1919-1941 , edited by E.T. Wooldridge. New titles in the 
Smithsonian History of Aviation include Space and the American 
Imagination by Howard E. McCurdy, and Eye in the Sky: The Story of the 
CORONA Spy Satellites, edited by Dwayne A. Day, John M. Logsdon, and 
Brian Latell. Blankets of Fire: U.S. Bombers over Japan during World War II, 
by Kenneth P. Werrell, and The Once and Future Moon, by Paul D. Spudis, 
were reprinted in paperback. The NASM Archival Videodisc Number 7, 
containing 100,000 air and space images will be published this year. The 
Museum's website continues to receive 4.5 million hits per month. The site 
includes images, specifications for over 200 aircraft in the collection, and a 
recently developed online educational activity on planetary sciences. 



58 



Education - School outreach efforts expanded to include pre-visit 
guides for "Exploring the Planets," "Looking at Earth," and 
"The Black Wings" exhibitions, and the Planetarium. New family programs 
including Family Nights at the National Air and Space Museum, Kite Day, 
Space Day, and a selection of smaller workshops were offered. 

Dulles Center - The new Center's design is 95 percent complete, and 
the Commonwealth of Virginia agreed to fund the road infrastructure. The 
50-year lease with the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority is 
nearing signature, and fund raising for construction is well underway. 

EXPLANATION OF PROGRAM CHANGE - The Institution requests an 
increase of $2,000,000 in FY 2000 in support of collection management in 
preparation for the opening of the new Dulles Center extension in 2002. 

The National Air and Space Museum - Dulles Center will house, 
display, and provide a facility for restoration and preservation of the 
majority of the Smithsonian Institution's air and space-related artifacts. At 
the Dulles Center, these artifacts will be accessible to current and future 
generations of Museum visitors and will form the basis for aviation and 
space education programs. The new Dulles Center will provide museum- 
quality housing for objects in NASM's collection not on public display on 
the Mall and provide public access to most of these collections. 

The Dulles Center's most urgent need is to prepare the collection for 
transfer to the new facility. At this time there are thousands of artifacts 
disassembled and packed in crates that need to be inspected, inventoried 
and conserved. This funding will provide needed funds to begin this work in 
earnest. 

The requested funds will be used to obtain expertise and equipment 
required for air and space collections management and restoration. The 
initial focus will be to inventory, document and ascertain the stored 
collection's status. In conjunction with that effort will be the conservation 
of key air and space-related artifacts planned for display at the Dulles 
Center. 

The Dulles Center is vitally needed to prevent further deterioration of 
one of the world's most valuable and irreplaceable collections of artifacts 
representing the history of aviation and spaceflight. This initial investment 



59 



in collection management and preservation will ensure that the national air 
and space treasures will be available to future generations. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
research activities, educational programs, exhibitions, and fundraising, 
including the associated personnel salaries and benefits. Donor/Sponsor 
Designated funds provide support for costs related to specific programs and 
projects, such as research, exhibitions, collections care, and education 
programs. The Dulles Center capital campaign is charged with raising the 
funds to build the museum extension. Government grants and contracts 
provide support for research and other scientific activities. 




60 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOU 


RCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


54 


4,079 


1 


521 





97 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


54 


4,180 


1 


372 





35 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


54 


4,303 


1 


357 





50 









ABSTRACT - As a leading center for the visual arts of Africa, the National 
Museum of African Art (NMAfA) fosters and sustains through exhibitions, 
collections, research, and public programs an interest in and an 
understanding of that continent's diverse cultures. The Museum accepts 
into its collections and exhibits the ancient and contemporary art of the 
entire continent. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Museum of African Art. The 
Institution requires $123,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line item. 

PROGRAM - The National Museum of African Art educates and instills an 
appreciation for the cultures and visual arts of Africa through the 
acquisition, care, research, exhibition, and interpretation of works of art in 
the context of African history, culture and aesthetics. 

Research - In FY 1998, the Museum conducted research on 
proposed acquisitions and on the recently acquired collection of African 
photography by South African photographer, Constance Stuart Larrabee, in 
preparation for an exhibition of her work. Installation of a new automated 
collections information system, The Museum System (TMS), provided a 
significant research resource to staff and outside researchers. Staff 
conducted an analysis of deterioration in recently acquired Ethiopian icons 
and development of a process which dramatically restored these important 
objects to their original brilliant color. 



61 



Collections Management - During FY 1998, NMAfA converted its 
collections information to TMS with the addition of image capability and 
future public access to both data and images. The Eliot Elisofon 
Photography Archives had preservation negatives made for 322 vintage 
prints and continued its inventory of Archives collections in conjunction 
with data entry into the Smithsonian Institution Research Information 
System. The Archives added about 8,000 images of the permanent 
collection, installations and events to its collection. 

Collection Acquisitions - In FY 1998, the Museum added 51 
important objects to its permanent collection through gift and purchase. 
Highlights among these acquisitions were a rare Mbete reliquary figure 
from Gabon, collected around 1930; two fine Urhobo and Igbo figures 
from Nigeria; Emandulo, Re-Creation, a composite of 12 artists' work 
created in Johannesburg, South Africa; and a superb sculpture, the 
Ancestors Converged Again, 1995 by Ghanaian artist, El Anatsui. The 
Elisofon Archives acquired through donation 606 vintage black and white 
negatives taken in Ghana in the 1960's and eighty 35-millimeter color 
transparencies of contemporary images from Mali. The Archives purchased 
an historic album (c. 1900) with 170 prints of Ugandan and Kenyan 
subjects. 

Exhibitions/Public Programs/Education - Among the nine temporary 
exhibitions on view during FY 1998 was "The Poetics of Line: Seven 
Artists of the Nsukka Group," which showcased the work of some of the 
leading members of a group of artists who have studied or taught at the 
University of Nigeria, Nsukka. "Olowe of Ise: A Yoruba Sculptor to Kings" 
was an exhibition of more than 30 major works by a known artist 
considered to be the finest carver of the Yoruba people of Nigeria in the 
20 th century. Smaller exhibitions of kinetic sculpture, African ceramics, a 
carved ivory tusk, recent gifts to the collection, furniture derived from 
African design, and South African photography augmented the Museum's 
four permanent gallery installations. 

The Museum complements its exhibition program and interprets its 
collection through a lively program of gallery tours, school programs, 
workshops, outreach programs, music, film and storytelling. In FY 1998, 
NMAfA offered nearly 1,500 public programs serving 37,000 individuals. 
In conjunction with the Nsukka exhibition, the Museum presented an 
international symposium which was attended by over 200 participants. For 
the Olowe exhibition, the Museum developed a popular hands-on activity 



62 



center which was, for the first time, incorporated directly into the 
exhibition area. The Museum also refined and expanded its website in 
FY 1998 to include electronic versions of all its exhibitions. 

Publications - With the Smithsonian Press, in FY 1998 the Museum 
co-published New Traditions from Nigeria: Seven Artists of the Nsukka 
Group which was related to the "Poetics of Line" exhibition. In conjunction 
with the Olowe exhibition, NMAfA published a major monograph, the first 
catalogue raisonne of a traditional African artist. The Museum produced 
extensive gallery guides for all of its new exhibitions, including a family 
guide for both the Nsukka exhibition and the permanent installation, 
"Images of Power and Identity." NMAfA also produced program notes for 
its series of music programs and for several other in-gallery public 
programs. The Museum's education programs brochure, published 
annually, has wide local and national distribution. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provided support 
for the Director's salary, benefits, and travel, as well as general operations, 
exhibitions and related public programs, collections acquisitions, and 
fundraising. The Smithsonian's Collections Acquisitions Program provided 
funds for some of the Museum's new collections purchases, and the 
Special Exhibitions fund supported both the Nsukka and Olowe exhibition 
installations. Support for the Nigerian Art Symposium also came from 
general Trust funds. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provided support for 
the costs of publications and collections acquisitions. 




63 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


123 


8,102 


9 


2,424 


1 


2,252 








FY 1 999 
ESTIMATE 


123 


8,267 


9 


2,201 





2,280 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


123 


8,570 


9 


1,559 





2,282 









ABSTRACT - The National Museum of American Art (NMAA) is the 
Nation's museum dedicated to the arts and artists of the United States 
from colonial times to the present. The Museum promotes art as a source 
of enrichment for the layperson and scholar alike and serves as a resource 
in the broadest possible sense for American visual arts. The Museum's 
programs make American art available to national audiences and beyond, as 
well as to those who visit its two historic landmark buildings in 
Washington DC. Outreach takes the form of circulating exhibitions, 
educational materials, publications, automated research resources, and a 
vast and growing offering of online services which reflect the diversity of 
the country's citizenry and art. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Museum of American Art. The 
Institution requires $303,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line item. 

PROGRAM - NMAA stimulates an understanding of American visual 
expression in its broadest contexts through interpretive exhibitions, 
publications, and programs. As a national institution, NMAA explores and 
serves the heritage of diverse communities in the United States. 

Research - Nineteen scholars engaged in dissertation and advanced 
research will enjoy research privileges through fellowships awarded for the 
1998-1999 academic year. Sarah Burns, who authored the 1996 
publication Inventing the Modem Artist: Art and Culture in Gilded Age 
America, was awarded the Charles C. Eldredge Prize for outstanding 
scholarship in the field of American art. During 1997 the public made over 



64 



65,000 informational searches in the Art Inventories, one of the Museum's 
art research databases available through the Smithsonian Institution 
Research Information System (SIRIS). In FY 1998 the Museum added to 
SIRIS the catalogue of the Peter A. Juley and Son Collection, representing 
127,000 photographic negatives of American art and artists, which is now 
available for online public inquiry. 

Collections - The Museum's collection of approximately 38,000 
objects encompasses painting, sculpture, graphic art, photography, and folk 
art, as well as modern crafts at its Renwick Gallery. NMAA's most 
important acquisition during the past year was Nam June Paik's 
Megatron/Matrix, a 215-monitor video wall 33 feet wide illustrated in the 
N.Y. Times as a work for the 21 st century. Other objects acquired in 
FY 1998 include significant works of photography by Eadweard Muybridge, 
Laura Gilpin, Arthur Wesley Dow, and Vik Muniz. Several works by Latino 
artists including Patssi Valdez and Carlos Alfonzo, Miriam Schapiro's 
seminal work entitled Dollhouse, and an important painting by the popular 
artist Norman Rockwell were also acquired. Folk art acquisitions include a 
late 19 th century Hispanic textile and a rare crucifixion sculpture, both from 
the Southwest. NMAA also acquired a number of key posters in 
conjunction with the "Posters American Style" exhibition. Among the 
Renwick's notable acquisitions were ceramics by Michael Frimkess, a 
tapestry by Helena Hernmarck, and a glass piece by Karla Trinkley. 

Exhibitions - Highlights of FY 1998 and FY 1999 exhibitions on view 
or in preparation include "Colonial Art from Puerto Rico: Selections from the 
Gift of Teodoro Vidal," David Hockney's, "A Bigger Grand Canyon," and 
"Ansel Adams' Legacy: Masterworks from the Friends of Photography 
Collection." An installation from the permanent collection titled "Time Out! 
Sports in Art" appeared in conjunction with the opening of the new MCI 
arena. "Posters American Style," surveying a century of posters, will travel 
to three locations nationally. 

Publications - The Museum published two major catalogs in 1998. 
Skilled Work, co-published with Smithsonian Press, documents the 
nationally acclaimed collection of craft at the Renwick Gallery, and Posters 
American Style was the companion book for the exhibition which was 
organized by NMAA. The Museum reprinted Modern American Realism: The 
Sara Roby Foundation Collection, another catalog that treats an important 
segment of the NMAA collection and complements a new tour of those 
works. 



65 



National Outreach and Education - The Museum's largest outreach 
project entitled "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" continues with a new goal of 
preserving 10,000 sculptures for the new century. Volunteers around the 
country have now listed over 32,000 sculptures in NMAA's Inventory of 
American Sculpture, nearly half of which need treatment or maintenance. In 
July 1998, an award to preserve the Francis Scott Key Monument in 
Baltimore was the first in a series of grants to restore individual sculptures. 
Awards were also made for conservation of sculptures in New York City, 
Washington DC, Chicago, Houston, Miami, Detroit, and Los Angeles. 
Extensive programming continued to attract thousands of visitors to 
NMAA, including tours, demonstrations, lectures, films, concerts, and 
symposia, as have monthly hands-on Art Stop family programs. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel, fundraising, and other related costs. 
Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for specific programs and 
projects. Exhibitions and education programs receive support from 
individuals, foundations, and corporations. 




66 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN HISTORY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOU 


RCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


313 


19,067 


19 


3,401 


78 


7,602 





25 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


313 


19,551 


32 


3,661 


50 


7,879 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


313 


20,334 


44 


2,869 


50 


12,007 









ABSTRACT - The National Museum of American History (NMAH) dedicates 
its collections and scholarship to inspiring a broader understanding of our 
nation and its many peoples. It creates learning opportunities, stimulates 
imaginations, and presents challenging ideas about the country's past. This 
mission statement serves as a guide to NMAH staff as it develops 
educational programs, opens new and updates existing exhibitions, 
conducts research, and enriches and cares for the collections. 

This line item also includes the National Postal Museum (NPM). Its 
mission is to preserve and interpret the material and intellectual heritage of 
postal communications and philately through its collections, exhibits, 
publications, and educational programs. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Museum of American History or 
the National Postal Museum. The Institution requires $783,000 for 
Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - The following are highlights of the National Museum of 
American History's recent achievements. 

Research and Publications - Extensive research led to many 
important publications in FY 1998, including: the Paul Bunge Prize winner 
for Instruments of Science: An Historical Encyclopedia edited by Robert 
Bud and Deborah Jean Warner; Design for Victory: World War II Posters on 
the American Home Front by William L. Bird, Jr. and Harry R. Rubenstein; 
Going Underground: Tunneling Past, Present, and Future edited by Jeffrey 
K. Stine and Howard Rosen; America's Money - America's Story by 



67 



Richard G. Doty; and the entire Winter 1997 issue of Caduceus: A 
Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences, which was 
devoted to 750 Years of Collecting Medical History at the Smithsonian 
Institution, edited by Ramunas Kondratas. 

Collections - In FY 1998, the Museum received objects through 
donation, purchase, and bequest. One of the most significant acquisitions 
was the rare Antonio Stradivari and Jacob Stainer Quartets donated by 
Dr. and Mrs. Herbert Axelrod. The Museum also acquired an 18 th -century 
surveyor's telescopic level made by the premier American instrument 
maker Benjamin Rittenhouse and a rich collection of costumes, scripts, 
posters, photographs, and playbills from Broadway musicals. It also 
received a large collection of artificial hearts and kidneys. 

Collections Management - In FY 1998, asbestos abatement for 
NMAH Silver Hill Building 17 was completed. Over 100,000 objects were 
decontaminated and relocated in preparation for Building 17's renovation, 
while 2,500 objects were moved to the Museum Support Center. The 
Museum also introduced a newly streamlined and effective outgoing loan 
process. NMAH made much progress on its new, multimedia collection 
information system by training collections staff and using the system for 
new data entry. Staff also let contracts for the conversion of large 
numbers of electronic and manual records. 

In FY 1 999, the Star Spangled Banner will be taken off display for 
much needed conservation work. A special on-site laboratory will house 
the flag while it undergoes extensive treatment. Visitors will be able to 
view the ongoing work and see a temporary exhibit addressing the 
conservation effort. This joint publicly/privately funded millennium project 
marks the beginning of the Museum's Blueprint program, a ten-year, multi- 
million dollar effort to tell a more integrated story of American history 
within the Museum, provide new learning opportunities, and showcase 
more of American History's collections. 

Exhibitions and Public Programs - The Museum's FY 1998 public 
programs reached out to ever larger audiences. The NMAH website, while 
receiving millions of hits, won a national award for the interactive program 
You Be the Historian. An innovative and critically acclaimed new virtual 
display, Revealing Things, provides access to the Museum's holdings. The 
Museum's Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation 
hosted the Colors of Invention series, exploring the role invention plays in 



68 



the technology and aesthetics of created colors through exhibitions, 
electronic field trips, lectures and workshops. The Duke Ellington Youth 
Festival and the Kids Learning History Conference involved thousands of 
school children and teachers, locally and nationally, in the development 
and implementation of model teaching programs. The Museum also 
launched a new series of programs on Latino traditions, in conjunction with 
two new exhibitions focusing on the historical development of Latino 
communities in North America. 

In FY 1998, exhibitions continued to explore the development of 
American culture and identity with shows such as "Wade in the Water," a 
major exhibition on the history of African American sacred music 
traditions, and "Ella Fitzgerald: First Lady of Song," bringing renewed 
attention to the accomplishments and artifacts of one of America's 
greatest singers. "Exploring the Internet" and "America's Clothespins" 
showed visitors the intersections between technology, creativity and 
inventiveness as well as the rapid changes technology brings about. "A 
Collector's Vision of Puerto Rico" represented portions of the Museum's 
new Vidal collection of Puerto Rican folk art. "Between a Rock and A Hard 
Place" helped visitors gain a better understanding of the history of 
sweatshops in America and of efforts underway to improve conditions in 
the workplace. 

In FY 1999, the Museum will open two new permanent exhibitions. 
"On Time" considers ways Americans have measured, used, and thought 
about time in the last 300 years. "Communities in a Changing Nation" 
explores what the promise of America meant to different communities 
pursuing freedom, equality, democracy and opportunity in the 1800s. In 
FY 2000, the Museum plans to open a new Welcome Center. In FY 2000, 
funds from the exhibition renewal pool requested in the Institution-wide 
Programs would help to design updated exhibits. 

National Postal Museum - The following are highlights of recent 
activities at National Postal Museum. In FY 1998, six new exhibitions were 
installed. "Our Town: New Deal Post Office Murals" uses selected studies 
presented for consideration as possible post office murals to examine the 
importance of New Deal-era murals in countless small communities across 
the country. "Mail to the Chief," guest curated by Congressman Joseph 
Pitt, depicted all of the known stamp sketches produced by President 
Franklin Roosevelt during his Presidency. "Manning the Post" examines the 
role of America's first female postal employee, Mary Katherine Goddard, 



69 



who served as the postmaster of Baltimore, Maryland, from 1775 to 1789. 
Two new publications were produced, including Letters From Home, an 
activity guidebook for ESL classrooms. The Museum developed guidelines 
for a graduate predoctoral fellowship program and established an 
international Council of Philatelists to advise on stamp-related projects and 
publications. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - National Museum of American History 
General Trust funds provide support for salaries and benefits of personnel. 
In addition, these funds provide general support for research activities, 
conservation, publications, exhibitions, fundraising, and acquisitions. 
Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for specific programs and 
projects, such as collections maintenance, special events, education 
programs, acquisitions and exhibitions. Government grants and contracts 
provide support for collections, exhibitions, and research. 

The National Postal Museum receives annually major operating and 
program support from the United States Postal Service. These funds 
provide support for salaries and benefits of Trust Fund employees, utilities 
and maintenance, security services, exhibitions, publications, fundraising, 
conservation, and public programs. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds 
provide support for specific programs and projects, such as special events, 
education programs, acquisitions and exhibitions. 




70 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


177 


11,896 


4 


3,671 


1 


4,375 








FY 1 999 
ESTIMATE 


266 


23,127 


3 


3,539 


1 


407 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


277 


28,465 


3 


3,548 


1 


410 









ABSTRACT - The National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), 
established in 1989 by Public Law 101-185, recognizes and affirms to 
Native American communities and the non-Native American public the 
historical and contemporary cultures and cultural achievements of the 
native peoples of the Western hemisphere. This is achieved through 
development and use of its collections and nationwide public programming, 
research, and exhibitions executed in consultation with native peoples. The 
mission of NMAI states that the Museum has a special responsibility, 
through innovative public programming, research, and collections, to 
protect, support, and enhance the development, maintenance, and 
perpetuation of Native American culture and community. 

NMAI operates administrative offices in Washington DC, an 
exhibition center in New York City at the George Gustav Heye Center 
(GGHC) in the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, and the Research 
Branch located in the Bronx, New York. The Research Branch temporarily 
houses curatorial offices, a conservation laboratory, and most of the 
Museum's collections. Beginning in January 1999, NMAI's collection of one 
million artifacts will be relocated from New York to a new state-of-the-art 
facility now under construction in Suitland, Maryland. This Cultural 
Resources Center (CRC), due to open in late 1998, will house reference, 
collections, and program support for NMAI. A museum building on the Mall 
is planned to open in 2002. NMAI will have two major projects under way 
concurrently (in addition to normal operations): the projected five-year 
relocation of the collections, and the design of programs and exhibits for 
the opening of the Mall Museum. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian requests $7,992,000 and 1 1 FTEs for 
programmatic increases associated with the opening of the CRC in 



71 



Maryland, moving staff and collections from New York City to the CRC, and 
developing exhibitions and beginning operations for the Mall museum of the 
NMAI. The Institution requests that the funds for this line item remain 
available until expended. These increases are partially offset by one-time 
funding ($2,992,000) requested in FY 1999 for CRC equipment needs. The 
Institution requires $338,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line item. 

PROGRAM - The Museum of the American Indian, located in New York City, 
opened its doors to the public in 1922. On June 24, 1990, the collection 
was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution to form the base of the 
National Museum of the American Indian. The collection, initiated near the 
turn of the century, is one of the world's largest assemblages of artifacts of 
the indigenous cultures of the Western hemisphere. 

Collections Management - With the new Cultural Resources Center 
nearing completion in Suitland, Maryland, the staff relocation and collections 
move is scheduled to begin in January 1999. In FY 1998, staff prepared 
equipment specifications for labs and collections storage for the new 
building; successfully completed a pilot move of 16,000 objects to test 
assumptions; began the conversion of a new collections database; prepared 
a request for proposal for contract support for the collection relocation; and 
undertook a 100 percent inventory and assessment of the collection's 
physical condition, to be completed this December. In FY 2000, with staff 
occupying the Cultural Resources Center and continuing the move of 
collections, NMAI will maintain basic services of the CRC and begin 
preparing the 8,000 objects required for the Mall opening exhibitions. As part 
of the move process, each object will be packed, imaged for inclusion in the 
database, and provided with a new barcoded location at the Cultural 
Resources Center. The resulting images will be digitized and linked to the 
collections database and will become the basis for Internet access to the 
Museum's collections. 

Research - Research and content development for the exhibitions at 
the Mall museum are continuing high priorities. In FY 1998, planners 
finalized conceptual themes and initial content of the three permanent Mall 
exhibitions. In addition, curators completed an exhibition on the "Plains 
Indians and the Horse," and contributed to the curation of exhibitions at the 
Heye Center. NMAI staff also accommodated researchers visiting various 
collections. Research needs will significantly increase as Mall exhibition 
objects are selected and text is written, and as exhibits change at the Heye 
Center. 



72 



Acquisitions - In coming years the Museum must move decisively with 
regard to acquisitions to demonstrate its commitment to living Indian people 
and artists and to build collections which document the lives of 20 th century 
Native American peoples. It is anticipated that 10 percent of the 8,000 
objects in the Mall exhibitions will be contemporary. In order to meet this 
goal for the Mall building's anticipated opening in 2002, a systematic 
acquisition program will be initiated. 

Public Programs - The George Gustav Heye Center interprets the 
NMAI mission through daily gallery tours and demonstrations, elementary 
and secondary school programs, theatrical presentations, film and video 
screenings, festivals, symposia, art talks, and community outreach programs. 
At over 600,000 visits last year, attendance has far outpaced initial 
expectations with the Heye Center now ranked as the sixth most visited 
museum in the city. In addition, the interactive Resource Center seeks to 
remove the Museum's walls by reaching a global Internet audience through 
its Conexus link. 

Additionally the Community Services Department conducts several 
artist-in-residence programs for both contemporary and traditional 
practitioners, as well as museum and research training, internships, technical 
assistance to tribal museums, and radio projects. 

Publications - In 1997-98, the Museum published one recording, 
Wood That Sings: Indian Fiddle Music of the Americas, two children's books, 
Brave Wolf and the Thunderbird, and Coyote in Love with a Star, along with 
brochures (one in Spanish), rack cards, preview postcards, quarterly 
calendars, posters, and special books for opening events. Work will continue 
with the Smithsonian Institution Press on Spirit Capture: Photographs from 
the National Museum of the American Indian for publication in Fall 1 998 (in 
conjunction with the "Spirit Capture" exhibition). Staff also manage the 
Museum's award-winning website. 

In FY 2000, NMAI will prepare several books, including a children's 
book, recordings and all printed materials and gallery guides for the 2002 
opening on the Mall, in addition to publications needed for ongoing activities 
at the Heye Center in New York and the Cultural Resources Center in 
Maryland. 

Exhibitions - Among the exhibitions presented in the changing 
galleries at GGHC this year was "Memory and Imagination: The Legacy of 

73 



Maidu Indian Artist Frank Day," a retrospective exhibition developed by the 
Oakland Museum depicting Maidu folklore and history. Day's work played a 
significant role in revitalizing Native American ceremonies in northern 
California and has had considerable influence on contemporary Native 
American artists. 

Currently under development by NMAI is "Spirit Capture: Native 
Americans and the Photographic Image." This semi-permanent exhibition 
will examine the impact of the history of photography on Native people, and 
will also showcase NMAI's extensive photographic archives. 

Long-term focus is now on the exhibitions for the NMAI museum on 
the Mall, opening in 2002. The work encompasses developing and producing 
exhibits for three long-term galleries, planning the inaugural exhibit for the 
changing gallery, developing the concept for and producing the open storage 
exhibitions, and implementing plans for the visitor experience throughout the 
building. NMAI staff coordinate with the architectural designer on all aspects 
of exhibit development from concept through production and installation. 

National Campaign/External Affairs - Recent accomplishments include 
raising funds for the Cultural Resources Center and laying the ground work 
for an endowment at the GGHC. Fundraising and external affairs goals for 
FY 1999 include raising endowment funds at the GGHC, initiating the first- 
phase feasibility study for marketing strategies for fund raising for the Mall 
Museum opening activities, and continuing to support a vigorous 
membership program that has attracted about 60,000 participants to date. 

EXPLANATION OF PROGRAM CHANGE - For FY 2000, the Smithsonian 
requests $7,992,000 and 1 1 FTEs for programmatic increases associated 
with the opening of the CRC in Suitland, Maryland, moving staff and 
collections from New York City to the CRC ($5,108,000 and 6 FTEs) and 
opening exhibitions and operations for the Mall museum of the NMAI 
($2,884,000 and 5 FTEs). The Institution requests that resources for this 
line item remain available until expended. These increases are partially offset 
by one-time funding ($2,992,000) requested in FY 1999 for CRC equipment 
needs. 



74 



NMAI FY 2000 REQUESTED INCREASE 


FTE 


000s 


Collections Move to Cultural Resources Center 

Technology Related Equipment 

Equipment and Furnishings 

Cultural Resources Center Operations: 

• Archives 

• Research & Curatorial 

• Libraries/Resource Center 

• Technology 


2 
2 
2 


$ 3,257 
435 
350 

223 
236 
462 
145 


Subtotal, Cultural Resources Center 


6 


5,108 


Mall Museum: 

• Exhibits Development 
Museum Operations: 

• Community Services 

• Publications 


2 
3 


2,350 

146 
388 


Subtotal, Mall Museum, Operations 


5 


2,884 


FY 2000 NMAI Requested Increase 


11 


$ 7,992 



The increases requested for FY 2000 are primarily directed at two 
Museum priorities: (1) improved public access to the collections, and (2) Mall 
Museum opening needs. Both efforts will increase the availability of Native 
American artifacts and information about the cultures that the collection 
represents. The museum-going public, Indian communities and individuals 
throughout North and South America, and Native and non-native scholars 
will benefit from this increased access to the Museum's treasures. 

Collections Move and Cultural Resources Center requirements 
($5,108,000 and 6 FTEs) - The Institution requests $3,257,000 to contract 
for packing and transportation services for the collections move from New 
York to Suitland, Maryland and $785,000 to complete the acquisition of 
furniture, equipment and technology-related equipment for the CRC. This 
increase assures a fully equipped facility for maintaining the collections and 
provides the tools for programmatic efforts. 

The Institution also requests $459,000 and 4 FTEs to strengthen 
archives and curatorial operations at CRC with an archivist, collections 
technician, two staff curators and contracted specialists representing the 



75 



hemispheric scope of the Museum's collections and research requirements. 
The Institution also requests $320,000 to address the backlog of cataloging 
and preservation of the Huntington Library collection (expected to take five 
years) and for ongoing library operations, including acquisitions of additional 
materials in support of the programs ($42,000). An additional $100,000 and 
2 FTEs will permit NMAI to staff the Resource Center at CRC to provide 
assistance to visitors and produce reference guides. The Institution requests 
$145,000 to provide technology capacity to support growing databases and 
networks, including linkages between NMAI locations. 

Mall Museum Exhibitions and Museum Operations ($2,884,000 and 5 
FTEs) - The Institution requests $2,350,000 for development of exhibitions 
at the Mall Museum and $534,000 and 5 FTEs for community service and 
publications activities. An increase of two community service positions and 
funding will strengthen the relationship between the resources concentrated 
at the CRC and NMAI's diverse and widely dispersed constituents. Three 
publications positions and funding will enable the Museum to develop books 
and other materials to be available for the public by the Mall Museum 
opening in 2002. 

The increases requested will move NMAI much closer to its goal of 
providing first-rate care and wide public access for the extensive and 
significant collections entrusted to it in the legislation of 1989. By continuing 
the relocation of the collection from New York and providing the needed 
program and support staff at the CRC, the long-term preservation of the 
artifact, archive, and library collections will be assured. NMAI will apply 
current technology to the recording of collections data during this relocation, 
improve management of the collections, expand security and inventory 
efforts and make broadly accessible both text and image information for 
multiple users in on-site and distant locations. Community services staff will 
help link the CRC's resources to specific users and encourage collaborative 
projects. Finally, the funds will help begin the crucial work of producing the 
inaugural exhibitions and related educational publications and materials that 
will make NMAI's collections directly accessible to millions of visitors to the 
new Mall Museum. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel, a portion of the National Campaign costs, 
and specialized program activities. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide 
support for costs related to specific programs and projects, including 
construction of the Mall museum, educational programs, exhibits, and 
outreach. 



76 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 





APPL 


CATION OF OP 


ERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


575 


41,698 


37 


27,917 


26 


17,939 


13 


2,054 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


589 


42,172 


46 


15,666 


22 


12,759 


13 


3,593 


FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


589 


43,639 


46 


13,902 


20 


12,159 


8 


1,025 



ABSTRACT - The National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) enhances the 
understanding of the natural world and humanity's place in it. The Museum's 
research program studies natural and cultural diversity by collecting and 
identifying specimens that exist in the natural world and artifacts developed 
by humans, establishing relationships among them, and explaining the 
underlying processes that generate, shape, and sustain their diversity. The 
Museum interprets this scientific understanding to a national audience 
through research reports, exhibitions, and education programs. The close 
linkage between research and outreach is a hallmark of the Museum, lending 
perspective to its research and authority to its outreach. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Museum of Natural History. An 
increase of $1 ,600,000 justified under Major Scientific Instrumentation will 
support the construction of a Field Emission Transmission Electron 
Microscope Lab. Funds requested under Conservation Biology will support 
enhanced research activities on vulnerable marine and terrestrial habitats. The 
Institution requires $1,467,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff in this 
line item. 

PROGRAM - The National Museum of Natural History is one of the leading 
international centers for research on natural history and anthropology. More 
than 100 Smithsonian and 50 affiliated-agency scientists working worldwide 
in the field conduct research using the Museum's unparalleled collections and 
laboratory facilities. Public exhibits at NMNH attract about six million visits 
annually. Outreach programs, including traveling exhibits, interactive 
electronic classrooms and field trips, and informational websites serve 
millions more, nationally and internationally. The Museum is committed to 
maintaining its intellectual and institutional leadership in its scientific 
disciplines, to conserving and expanding access to its irreplaceable 



77 



collections, to training the next generation of scientists and technicians, to 
developing and implementing innovative and virtual educational materials and 
methodologies to expand and enhance public use of its resources, and to 
continuing its recognition as America's authoritative source of knowledge of 
humanity's place in the natural world. 

Research - In order to provide context for issues such as global 
change and biological diversity, the Museum's research emphasizes both 
historical and contemporary approaches. During FY 1998, Museum scientists 
contributed research and public presentations to the "Year of the Ocean" 
celebrations, unlocked new discoveries on the origins of life in excavations in 
China, and provided leadership and critical new insights into a key indicator 
of earth's health: the declining populations of amphibians. Museum 
researchers produce over 600 papers per year; this Spring, NMNH research 
appeared at least four times in Science, either as the main research article, or 
in the context of another research issue. Increasingly, research is also 
disseminated through public programs, ranging from exhibitions to remote 
learning programs. One member of the Paleobiology department is part of a 
Harvard/Massachusetts Institute of Technology team recently picked by the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration as one of 1 1 groups to form 
the Institute of Astrobiology, which will focus on research involving the early 
history of life on Earth, and the possibilities for life on Mars, Europa, and 
elsewhere. Finally, NMNH established the first Endowed Chair in the history 
of the Smithsonian Institution, the Herbert R. and Evelyn Axelrod Revolving 
Chair of Systematic Ichthyology in the Division of Fishes. Museum scientists 
are frequently called upon as experts by federal agencies ranging from the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, where physical anthropologists assist in 
forensic analysis, to the Department of Interior, where Museum biologists 
contribute to species inventories and park planning. Research training for 
future scientists included training of 77 interns, 132 pre- and post-doctoral 
students, and 55 visiting fellows. The museum is requesting $1.6 million to 
establish a laboratory, in partnership with the Carnegie Institute and NASA, 
to analyze extraterrestrial material. This request is addressed under the Major 
Scientific Instrumentation section. 

Collections Management - In FY 1998, approximately 297,000 
specimens were added to the Museum's collections. Among the highlights 
are a spectacular group of rhodochrosite crystals from Colorado that will go 
on display in the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and 
Minerals and collections from Ghana including an airplane coffin, toy trucks, 
and academic dress to be displayed as part of the African Voices Hall 
scheduled for opening in the Fall of 1999. Installation continued on the 
transaction management module of the Museum's Collections and Research 
Information System, increasing the efficiency by which staff can monitor the 



78 



huge number of incoming and outgoing loans, exchanges, and acquisitions of 
collection items for research and exhibition. Requirement specifications were 
also completed for the collection multimedia catalog. Over 24,500 specimens, 
largely mammalian carnivores, were moved to improved storage at the 
Museum Support Center; installation of the first phase of compactors for the 
plant collections was completed, providing needed expansion space; and the 
insect collections were stabilized and labeled in preparation for the move to 
the new storage area in the East Court building. In FY 1998 presentations as 
diverse as a public database on Spring-flowering plants near the District of 
Columbia and scientific research databases of the United States Antarctic 
Program undertaken in cooperation with the National Science Foundation 
were made publicly accessible via the Natural History Web. 

Public Programs - The Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, 
and Minerals, a permanent exhibition which features the Hope Diamond, tells 
the story of earth sciences from minerals to meteorites through thousands of 
spectacular specimens, touchable objects, visitor-friendly text, and a variety 
of videos and computer interactives. Two temporary exhibitions were 
mounted during FY 1998. "Agayuliqararpui (Our Way of Making Prayer): The 
Living Tradition of Yup'ik Masks" opened, presenting treasures from the 
ceremonial heritage of the Yup'ik Eskimo people of Southwest Alaska. 
"Natural Selections: Museum Photography" by staff photographer Chip Clark, 
also opened. The Naturalist Center, an educational facility staffed by the 
museum and temporarily located in Leesburg, Virginia, had the largest school 
and public visitation ever in its more than 25-year history. During FY 1998, 
the Natural Partners program, which is developing electronic programming to 
increase public access to the Museum's collections and research activities, 
produced seven electronic field trips including three from the Amazon 
rainforest, in one of which Secretary of State Madeline Albright participated. 
The program received two "Tele Awards." Natural Partners also launched Ice 
Age Summer Camp, its first after-school program with Voyager Expanded 
Learning. With the help of a grant from IBM, Natural Partners has begun 
digitizing the NMNH collections. Through another grant from the NASA 
Stennis Space Center, the program produced its first two Remote Sensing 
Expeditions: an electronic visit to a hazardous volcano in Peru; and a visit 
along the ancient trails of early peoples in North America. 

In the coming fiscal years three major permanent exhibitions will open: 
the new Rocks Gallery in November of 1998, the African Voices gallery and 
Behring Family Rotunda in the Fall of 1999. Temporary exhibitions will 
include one on "Porno Indian Basket Weavers" and a major exhibition entitled 
"Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People." During FY 1999, Natural Partners will 
produce eight electronic field trips; develop and implement a Mammals in the 
Schools Program; and with Voyager Expanded Learning, open six new 



79 



Museum Schools throughout the United States, and premiere "Why We 
Remember," a three-year program on the Lewis and Clark expedition in 
August. 

Major Facility Expansion and Renovation - The relocation to the newly 
completed East Court building will provide space for research and collections 
activities, public service space for education offices and instructional 
classrooms, and needed public restrooms. The move will be completed in 
FY 2000. During FY 1 998 and FY 1 999, the remainder of the 
communications equipment will be procured and installed in the building. This 
effort requires supplemental contract labor and supplies and equipment to 
assist with the relocation of offices and laboratories. During FY 1999, 
preparation to move millions of delicate specimens, including insect 
collections from fieldwork carried out since 1881, will also continue requiring 
specialized equipment and supplemental contract support. A major capital 
renewal project is in progress and will continue for a decade. It will provide 
the Natural History building with a new heating, ventilating, and air 
conditioning system. Progress will depend upon the prompt occupancy of the 
East Court building. It is crucial to keep the Natural History building's 
mechanical renovation project on schedule, to minimize the interruption of 
regular scientific work, and to maintain access to important and frequently 
utilized reference collections. 

The Discovery Center, also known as the West Court project, is now 
under construction within the National Museum of Natural History building 
and is funded by a bond issue to be repaid from revenue-producing activities. 
Occupancy of the building will begin late in 1998. It will provide staff and 
public restaurants as well as a new, large-format, 2D/3D theater. The building 
will also provide new and expanded space for the Discovery Room, Natural 
History's hands-on learning center, currently located in the main Museum 
building, and for the anthropology film archives. The Discovery Center will be 
integrated with the existing structure as well as with the building's 
mechanical support systems. 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits, as well as general program costs. Donor/Sponsor 
Designated funds provide support for costs related to specific programs and 
projects. Government grants and contracts provide support for research and 
exhibitions. 




NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


85 


5,278 


1 


530 





83 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


85 


5,406 


1 


407 





325 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


85 


5,618 


1 


486 





400 









ABSTRACT - The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) exhibits and studies portraits 
of major figures in American history and culture. It also studies the artists 
who created portraits in its collection and sponsors scholarly and public 
activities in these areas. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Portrait Gallery. The Institution 
requires $212,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line 
item. 

PROGRAM - The National Portrait Gallery explores the heritage and 
accomplishments of the American people by collecting, documenting, 
preserving, studying, and exhibiting portraits in all media as both historical 
and artistic documents. 

Electronic Outreach - The National Portrait Gallery's newly named 
Center for Electronic Research and Outreach Services continued to bring 
Gallery collections, programs, and exhibitions to researchers and the public 
via the World Wide Web. This year's online exhibitions and programs included 
"Edith Wharton's World," "George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace," "Celebrity 
Caricature in America," "The Amistad Case," "The Seneca Falls Convention," 
and "Andy Warhol FLASH— -November 22, 1963." Current website awards 
include Snap Best of the Web, Lycos Top 5%, Education Index Top Site, and 
ThirdAge Special Site. Visitor hits to the homepage totaled approximately 
100,000 this past year. The Center also successfully installed a new 
collections information system (CIS), part of a joint initiative by six 
Smithsonian museums. The Catalog of American Portraits' research records 
are included in the new CIS database as well as in the website's collections 



81 



search. The online search provided more than 25,000 responses to 
researchers' queries this year. 

During FY 1998, research and writing of The Selected Papers of 
Charles Willson Pea/e and His Family, Volume 5: The Autobiography of 
Charles Willson Pea/e was completed and submitted to Yale University Press. 
A publication subvention from the National Historical Publication and Records 
Commission of the National Archives was awarded. 

Collections Management - Conservation of fourteen sculptures in the 
collection was made possible by a generous grant from the Smithsonian 
Women's Committee. These included sculptures of Ginger Rogers by Isamu 
Noguchi, Thomas Hart Benton by Onorio Ruotolo, George Nakashima by 
Jonathan Shahn, and Nettie Fowler McCormick by Erastus Dow Palmer. 

Collection Acquisitions - During FY 1 998, approximately 300 
acquisitions were added to NPG's collections. Among the most important 
were a caricature drawing of David Smith by David Levine, two drawings of 
Lincoln Kirsten by Jamie Wyeth, a pastel drawing of James Baldwin by 
Beauford Delaney, two watercolor sketches of Josephine Baker by Paul Colin, 
and a drawing of Ben Shahn by Alexander Calder. The Gallery received two 
major bequests: portraits of David Rittenhouse by Charles Willson Peale and 
Daniel Webster by Francis Alexander. Other acquisition highlights included 
portraits of Edward Albee by Menden Hall, Jonas Phillips by an unidentified 
late 18 ,h -century artist, and Catherine Shouse by Elaine Pear Cohen. 

Exhibitions - To commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Marshall 
Plan, the National Portrait Gallery and the George C. Marshall Foundation in 
Lexington, Virginia, co-organized an exhibition on the life and career of 
American general and statesman George C. Marshall. The exhibition will 
travel to the Marshall Museum in Lexington, Virginia. "Faces of Time: 
Seventy-five Years of Time Magazine Cover Portraits" was organized to 
commemorate Time's 75 th anniversary and its gift to the Gallery of several 
thousand original art works that appeared on the magazine's covers. The 
exhibition will travel to four venues including two presidential libraries. Work 
is underway on eleven other exhibitions opening in 1999 and on plans for 
touring exhibitions from the Gallery's permanent collection while the museum 
is closed for renovation, now scheduled to begin in FY 2000. 

Education - The Gallery interprets its collection through daily gallery 
tours, elementary and secondary school programs, senior citizens' outreach 



82 



programs, lunchtime lectures and book signings, films, and performances. 

The Gallery presented 26 Living History Performances of Lens of 
History, a twenty-minute one-man show bringing Mathew Brady's 
accomplishments to life, and "How Did Mathew Brady Make These Pictures?" 
Day, an afternoon of demonstrations of nineteenth century photographic 
processes and techniques. It also presented sixteen Lunchtime Lectures, 
some with book signings, including John S.D. Eisenhower's discussion of his 
book, Agent of Destiny: the Life and Times of Win field Scott. The Cultures In 
Motion program produced 26 performances, including The Beatles Second 
Invasion concerts held in conjunction with the Gallery's "Faces of Time" 
exhibition. Nationally-known Beatles tribute bands performed in the Portrait 
Gallery Courtyard each Thursday in July to unprecedented crowds. 

Publications - The National Portrait Gallery, with the George C. Marshall 
Foundation, co-published George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace to accompany 
the exhibition of the same title. The book is distributed by the Johns Hopkins 
University Press, and includes essays by Larry I. Bland and Colin L. Powell. 
Faces of TIME: 75 Years of TIME Magazine Cover Portraits was published by 
Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown & Company in association with the National 
Portrait Gallery to accompany the exhibition. Celebrity Caricature in America, 
published by Yale University Press, went into a second printing after 
publication. 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support to 
help defray costs of publications, public lectures, symposia, special events 
for exhibition openings, loan exhibition development, management, research, 
and fundraising. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs 
related to specific programs and projects. This past year Time, Inc. and 
Canon USA, Inc. sponsored the "Faces of Time: Seventy-five Years of Time 
Magazine Cover Portraits" exhibition. "Celebrity Caricature in America" was 
supported by the Marpat Foundation and Nations Bank Charitable Foundation, 
and the "Mathew Brady" exhibition received funding from Siemens 
Corporation, the Marpat Foundation, and Citibank. 



83 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


317 


19,124 


2 


1,267 





695 





773 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


317 


19,664 


2 


1,608 





1,823 





1,039 


FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


317 


20,424 


2 


1,666 





1,855 





1,059 



ABSTRACT - When the National Zoological Park (NZP) was founded in 
1889, its mission was defined as "the advancement of science and the 
instruction and recreation of the people." The Zoo still works to achieve 
these ends. Since NZP's public function is educational and recreational, it 
seeks to enhance public awareness about biology and related subjects. 
This emphasis means that the Zoo is concerned with all aspects of life, 
both terrestrial and aquatic, small and large, past and present. Responding 
to the world environmental crisis, the Zoo is now committed to 
representing the whole of life on earth, plant and animal, in all its 
complexity and glory. To this end, NZP is transforming the animals-only 
zoological park into a biological park (BioPark). The BioPark will highlight 
the intermeshing relationships of animals and plants, educate visitors by its 
spectacle and beauty, and foster a concern for the future of life in all its 
forms. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the National Zoological Park. Funds requested 
under Conservation Biology will support continued research on how wildlife 
is affected by invasive species. The Institution requires $760,000 for 
Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - NZP serves both the general public and more specialized 
audiences by promoting the conservation of life on Earth through informal 
and formal education, research, and animal health programs. NZP's 
educational efforts center on biological literacy, with special emphases on 
evolution, complex adaptive interactions, the origins and importance of 
biodiversity, global change, and the impact of humans on the world. In 
pursuit of its mission, NZP exhibits a wide range of living plants and 
animals on its 167-acre facility in Rock Creek Park in Washington DC. It 



84 



also maintains the Conservation and Research Center as a major facility for 
endangered species propagation, conservation, training, and research 
located on 3,150 acres near Front Royal, Virginia. The scale and scope of 
the Zoo's programs require a skilled support staff, with specialized 
equipment and materials capable of developing and maintaining the unique 
systems essential to sustaining living animal and plant exhibits. Also 
included in this line item is a portion of the International Environmental 
Science Program, which supports long-term studies of the endangered 
Golden Lion Tamarin. 

Research - Zoo nutritionists, in collaboration with the Bureau of Land 
Management, have been studying the feeding behavior of endangered 
tortoises in Nevada since 1991. Between 1991 and 1997, the tortoises ate 
127 species of plants. Studies in 1998, an El Nino year, show the tortoises 
ate an additional 103 plant species containing rare but essential nutrients. 
For tortoises, which live 50 to 100 years, ephemeral plants growing in 
unusually wet years appear to be critical for their normal development and 
reproduction. Only long-term studies will provide information to support 
such conclusions, and the Zoo's nutritional scientists are analyzing plant 
samples to determine whether these relationships exist. 

Zoo physiologists continue to document the reproductive cycles of 
threatened species using noninvasive endocrine monitoring techniques. 
Zoo scientists use these techniques to develop appropriate semen 
collection and artificial insemination protocols and to diversify the captive 
populations. In 1998, Zoo pathologists discovered a new strain of fungus 
affecting frogs in the collection. This fungus may be implicated in the 
dramatic worldwide decline of frog populations occurring over the past 
decade. These are cases where Zoo research has considerable impact on 
problems in animal populations and habitats. 

Living Exhibits - Living exhibits serve as the centerpiece of the 
National Zoo. In 1998, the Zoo opened its "Great Cats Exhibit," a highly 
interactive series of graphics and displays surrounding the existing 
lion/tiger yards. As part of the new American Prairie exhibit, the new 
prairie dog exhibit opened. The remainder of the American Prairie exhibit 
will open in the spring of 1999 when American Bison are added to the 
exhibit. The national-award-winning exhibit "Think Tank" continues original 
research on great ape cognition, and the Amazonia Science gallery 
continues to expand its programs for bringing Smithsonian science to the 
general public. "Living in Water" (described under the Aquatics Exhibit 



85 



section of the Repair, Restoration and Alterations of Facilities portion of 
this budget request), the "American Farm," and the Urban Wildlife Center 
are in concept development for possible openings in years 2000 and 2001 . 

Animal Conservation - Programs at the Conservation and Research 
Center focus on the preservation of endangered species and the 
development of specialized education and training programs. Staff 
members continue to play a leading role in the preservation of Micronesian 
kingfishers and a host of other threatened species through a dynamic 
combination of field studies, laboratory investigations, and interactive 
management of wild and captive populations. To assist national and 
international conservation goals, NZP scientists present a variety of 
custom-designed training courses in wildlife education. These courses, 
taught at the Center and at various locations abroad, are aimed at students 
and professionals from the U.S. and developing countries. In addition to its 
research, management, and training programs, the Center maintains 
CONSLINK, an international computerized bulletin board dealing with 
conservation issues and findings. 

Education - The Zoo's diverse educational programs include student 
and professional training programs, research lectures, public lectures, 
special events, public demonstrations, specialized films and publications, 
and dissemination of information through the Internet. Zoo staff develop 
innovative educational outreach programs and curricula for teachers and 
school children. Major collaborations between organizations and 
governments in Latin America allow the Zoo to support local and 
international programs of great interest to Latino and non-Latino audiences. 
Novel programs, like "Scientists in the Classroom," allow students and 
teachers to interact directly with Zoo scientists and researchers, and reach 
millions of teachers and students across the nation with teleconferencing. 
During FY 1999, the Zoo will continue expanding its teleconferencing 
capabilities and expand and improve its Internet website. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel, general support, fundraising, 
outreach, and acquisitions. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide 
support for costs related to specific programs and projects, such as 
conservation, research, and training. Government grants and contracts 
provide support for research. 



86 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


141 


18,353 


64 


10,444 


16 


1,158 


274 


38,755 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


141 


18,701 


88 


12,681 


22 


3,025 


248 


45,426 


FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


141 


19,846 


88 


13,255 


22 


2,862 


248 


45,246 



ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) conducts 
research to increase understanding of the origin and nature of the universe 
and to communicate this information through publications, teaching, and 
public presentations. SAO studies diverse systems, including the large-scale 
structure of the universe, clusters of galaxies, quasars, the sun, and 
planets. SAO also conducts research in laboratory astrophysics, 
atmospheric physics, geophysics, medical physics, and precollege science 
education. SAO research has a major impact in the worldwide scientific 
community and has helped the United States maintain worldwide leadership 
in science. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. An 
increase of $613,000 justified in the Mandatory Increases section of this 
budget will support increased rental cost for SAO facilities in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts ($270,000), necessary rental space in Hilo, Hawaii 
($320,000) for the Submillimeter Array project, and inflationary increases 
on book and journal purchases ($23,000). The Institution requires 
$532,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - SAO is a member of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA), 
headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In collaboration with the 
Harvard College Observatory, SAO pursues a broad program of research 
organized by the following disciplines: atomic, molecular and medical 
physics; high-energy astrophysics; optical and infrared astronomy; planetary 
sciences; radio and geoastronomy; solar and stellar physics; theoretical 
astrophysics; and science education. 



87 



SAO's observation facilities include the Fred Lawrence Whipple 
Observatory in Arizona, the Oak Ridge Observatory in Massachusetts, and a 
millimeter-wave radio telescope at Cambridge, as well as instruments 
occasionally launched aboard balloons, rockets, and spacecraft. 

Research - In FY 1 998, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
made significant advances in several areas. Looking deep into space to 
analyze light from exploded stars (supernovae), SAO and Harvard 
astronomers, and their colleagues elsewhere, have found substantial 
evidence that the expansion of the universe is speeding up rather than 
slowing down. Another research group also obtained similar evidence at 
almost the same time. If confirmed, this very surprising and totally 
unexpected finding, confirming the existence of a "pressure" arising from 
empty space, will truly revolutionize our view of the universe. 

Astronomers have long suspected that a black hole lurks at the 
center of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Now, using the high resolution 
capability of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of radio telescopes to 
track the movements of matter around the center, scientists at SAO and 
their colleagues elsewhere have obtained strong evidence that such a black 
hole, with a mass equivalent to that of about three million Suns, anchors 
the heart of the Milky Way. 

The remarkable high-resolution images of the sun's inner atmosphere 
returned by NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 
spacecraft are dramatically challenging theories about solar physics. TRACE 
incorporates special mirrors designed by SAO scientists and instruments 
sensitive to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths of light. With unprecedented 
high temporal and spatial resolution, TRACE is studying the formation and 
decay of huge magnetic loops arising from the surface of the sun. These 
loops are associated with the source of the solar wind, which is the stream 
of charged particles that pours from the sun to engulf the solar system, 
often disrupting communication and power systems on Earth. 

A team of astronomers led by scientists at SAO discovered a disk of 
gas and dust around a nearby star that may be forming or may have already 
formed planets. This proto-planetary disk, about three times the diameter of 
Pluto's orbit around the sun, surrounds a star roughly 220 light-years from 
Earth, which, according to theory, has the right age to be forming planets 
now. The disk was discovered independently and nearly at the same time 
by a second team of astronomers using the 10-meter Keck II Telescope on 
Mauna Kea, Hawaii. 



88 



The success of SAO scientists in competitions to be part of major 
NASA space missions has enabled SAO to greatly enhance its scientific 
impact. Scientists at SAO played or will continue to play key roles in the 
design, instrumentation, and operation of the NASA Advanced X-ray 
Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). AXAF is the third of NASA's "Great 
Observatories," along with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton 
Gamma Ray Observatory, and is designed to observe in x-rays — in much 
greater detail than ever before— the hot, violent regions of the universe that 
cannot be seen with optical telescopes. This satellite is currently in the final 
stages of testing with launch scheduled for January 26, 1999. 

The start of the design and development phase of the fourth and last 
of NASA's Great Observatories has begun. The Space Infrared Telescope 
Facility (SIRTF) will be the infrared equivalent of the Hubble Space 
Telescope. SAO is developing the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) for this 
mission. The IRAC instrument will address four major scientific objectives 
defining the SIRTF mission: (1) study the early universe, (2) search for and 
study brown dwarfs and superplanets, (3) study ultraluminous galaxies and 
active galactic nuclei, and (4) discover and study protoplanetary and 
planetary debris disks. In addition, IRAC is a general-purpose camera that 
will be used for a wide variety of astronomical research programs. 

Education - In FY 1 998, SAO continued work on a discovery-based 
elementary school curriculum using astronomy as a unifying theme. The 
Education Forum at SAO is one of four major centers for space science 
education established this past year by NASA. The Forum's educational 
mission is to bring to the widest possible audience the stories and concepts 
relating to the structure and evolution of the universe. SAO's Summer 
Intern Program brought a dozen college undergraduates to Cambridge to 
work with SAO scientists on a variety of research projects. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel and general operations. In addition, these 
funds provide support for research, fellowships, business expenses, and 
fundraising. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs 
related to specific programs and projects. Government grants and contracts 
provide support for major research in SAO's areas of expertise and 
experience which is often carried out in cooperation with both 
governmental and academic institutions in the United States and abroad. 



89 



SMITHSONIAN CENTER FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH AND EDUCATION 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


36 


2,957 





271 














FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


36 


3,055 





40 














FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


36 


3,164 





40 















ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education 
(SCMRE), formerly the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, located at the 
Museum Support Center in Suitland, Maryland, is the Smithsonian's 
specialized research facility for the conservation and technical study of 
museum objects. SCMRE staff examine the conservation-related properties 
of materials, extract historical information from their technical record, and 
improve conservation treatment technology. Experience with a wide range 
of materials and expertise in analytical and technological studies enables 
SCMRE to engage successfully in collaborative research with 
anthropologists and art historians. SCMRE also conducts a conservation 
training program that provides instruction in basic and advanced 
conservation theory and technique, supports and organizes workshops and 
seminars, and disseminates the latest knowledge in the field of 
conservation and cultural materials research to museums and research 
professionals as well as to more general audiences throughout the United 
States and the world. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Center for Materials Research 
and Education. The Institution requires $109,000 for Necessary Pay for 
existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - SCMRE's program areas include research and development, 
education and training, and support and collaboration. 

Research and Development - SCMRE has undertaken baseline 
research to determine the potential for retrieval of biomolecular information 
from fluid-preserved zoological collection specimens. Results indicate that 



90 



changes must be made in the manner in which new collections are 
preserved if the specimens are to be used as reservoirs of molecular 
information in the future. A newer initiative involving the determination of 
the extent of preserved isotopic biosignatures in museum herbarium 
collections is more positive. Preliminary findings demonstrate that while the 
preservation process does affect plant organic matter, individual 
compounds are preserved over time periods of 100 years. 

Provenance studies that focus on New World ceramic production 
and trade continue with major projects being carried out in conjunction 
with Mexico's Instituto de Antropologia y Historia. Pottery is being 
characterized from the northern Mexican site of Casas Grandes and the 
Mayan site of Calakmul. Both have been designated by the Mexican 
government as among the 10 most important sites in the country. 

The research carried out by SCMRE staff in recent years on the 
effects of such environmental conditions as temperature and relative 
humidity on the long-term stability of collection materials is being 
synthesized in a monograph on the mechanical properties of museum 
materials. This reference work is expected to reach completion by the end 
of FY 1999. 

Education and Training - Fundamental to educational programming at 
SCMRE is dissemination of knowledge to new and wider audiences beyond 
our traditional constituency of museum conservation professionals. 

One program directed toward that end provides education, outreach, 
and technical studies on characterization and preservation of 
Hispano-American polychrome wood veneration art (Santos, or Imagenes). 
A major project within this initiative was a three-day workshop entitled 
"Preservation of Santos," held in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Universidad 
Del Sagrado Corazon (USC) San Juan, Puerto Rico, was the host and 
co-sponsor for the workshop. The course combined lecture presentations 
with practical studio applications in objects examination and evaluation, 
and preservation treatments and strategies. 

A second major project is the development of an interdisciplinary 
high school curriculum in arts and materials technology entitled Science 
Teaching Art Teaching Science (STATS). In this project, SCMRE staff are 
collaborating with a local high school in Suitland, Maryland, and other 
educators to develop an interdisciplinary full-year art/science curriculum for 



91 



secondary and undergraduate classrooms. This multimedia curriculum is 
being developed to allow teachers nationwide to use artists' materials as a 
means of teaching science and technology. 

Pursuing the establishment of a Center of Excellence in microscopy, 
SCMRE recruited a microscopy specialist to develop techniques in such 
areas as sample preparation and image analysis, as well as an educational 
program aimed at professionals concerned with the care and study of 
museum collection materials. Progress thus far includes the preparation for 
a first course in applied optical microscopy planned for the end of 
FY 1998. 

Support and Collaboration - SCMRE continued to provide analytical 
and technical assistance to conservation and curatorial staff in various 
Smithsonian museums, as well as to ongoing research and educational 
efforts at SCMRE. During FY 1997 the Center performed more than 2,200 
analyses of which 30 percent were for other Smithsonian units. Staff 
provided consultations and advice on diverse technical and analytical 
matters, including x-ray radiography, optical and electron microscopy, and 
organic materials characterization. The Center provided answers to almost 
1 ,000 requests for information from the general public and museum 
professionals, both nationally and internationally. Staff also assisted with 
the production and distribution of SCMRE technical guidelines and other 
publications for museum professionals, and maintained and updated 
SCMRE's website. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for research and education activities 



92 



SMITHSONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1 998 
ESTIMATE 


45 


3,043 


1 


504 





340 





1,000 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


45 


3,097 


1 


358 


2 


311 





1,500 


FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


45 


3,207 


1 


378 


2 


196 





2,000 



ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) 
advances stewardship of the biosphere through interdisciplinary research 
and education. SERC scientists study a variety of interconnected 
ecosystems starting from its base on the shore of the Chesapeake Bay and 
radiating out to comparative landscapes throughout the world. Research 
findings are communicated to diverse audiences through public programs 
and professional training. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center. Under the Conservation Biology support requested under Institution- 
wide Programming, SERC will expand its database on alien invasive species 
and help assess their impact on local ecosystems. The Institution requires 
$1 10,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM- The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center is dedicated 
to increasing knowledge of the biological and physical processes that 
sustain life on Earth. SERC's interdisciplinary research includes long-term 
studies to examine the ecological questions about landscapes of linked 
ecosystems, especially those affected by human activities. Located on the 
shore of the Chesapeake Bay, SERC uses the geographic features of the 
nation's largest estuary to investigate interconnections of aquatic, 
terrestrial and atmospheric components of complex landscapes. These 
studies are then compared on regional, continental and global scales. For 
improved stewardship of the biosphere, SERC's research provides data, 
publications and expert consultation in support of conservation, 
environmental policy and management of natural resources. Connected to 
an international network of collaborators, SERC trains future generations of 



93 



scientists to address ecological questions of the Nation and the globe. 
SERC's education programs use exposure to a natural environment to 
demonstrate to the public both the active process of research and also the 
value of scientific approaches to environmental issues. 

Research - SERC's research on effects of increased carbon dioxide on 
plants shows how global change in the atmosphere is affecting marshes, 
coastal scrub, and forest communities. The Department of Energy uses 
SERC research on complex interactions of nutrients and water with altered 
plant production in large-scale biosphere models. 

Research on landscape ecology at SERC determines the effects of 
agriculture, forests, and topography on transfer and transformation of 
nutrients flowing into the Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries, which suffer 
from too much nitrogen and phosphorus. 

SERC is a national center for research on introduced marine species, 
which are invading coastal ecosystems at unprecedented rates throughout 
the world. One of the main causes of these biological invasions is plankton 
transferred in ballast water of ships. During FY 1998, SERC worked closely 
with the U.S. Coast Guard to establish the National Ballast Water 
Information Clearinghouse, which gathers data on commercial ships from 
foreign ports releasing ballast water to all U.S. ports. SERC also conducted 
a national workshop for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to synthesize 
current information on nonindigenous species in coastal ecosystems and to 
develop standards for assessing invasions of all major coastal regions in the 
United States. 

During 1998, SERC's research on population dynamics and 
community ecology of plants and animals involved a rich diversity of 
species. SERC's scientists determined the importance of fungi in seed 
germination of orchids of U.S. forests, the factors regulating toxic and non- 
toxic blooms of phytoplankton in the Chesapeake Bay, and the impact of 
over-fishing on the reproductive biology of blue crabs along the east coast 
of North America. 

Education - SERC dedicated the new Philip D. Reed Education Center 
in FY 1998. The new facility allows SERC to expand its public offerings to 
regional school groups, to conduct workshops for teachers, to provide 
public lectures for interested citizens, and to expand innovative educational 
offerings to diverse constituencies, including disabled citizens. Over 6,500 



94 



individuals participated in programs at SERC's site on the Chesapeake Bay 
in FY 1 998, as did tens of thousands more through the SERC site on the 
World Wide Web. SERC trained 32 interns, 10 graduate student fellows, 10 
post-doctoral fellows, and 30 visiting scientists from 23 states, the District 
of Columbia, and 14 countries through professional education programs 
during the past fiscal year. The increasing numbers of students and 
scientists visiting SERC from many foreign countries and all parts of the 
United States provide crucial avenues for disseminating SERC's research 
findings and expertise. 

Exhibitions - SERC completed a traveling exhibition on the blue crab 
and its ecological importance in the Chesapeake Bay. During FY 1998, the 
blue crab exhibit provided scientific information on the morphology, life 
cycle, and habitat requirements of this important fishery species to 
numerous classrooms and school fairs throughout Maryland. 

Publications - SERC published 60 articles in FY 1998. Among the 
most significant of these was a paper in Nature, showing that the hole in 
the ozone layer of the atmosphere over Antarctica is reducing plankton 
production in the southern ocean. Results show that turbulent mixing of the 
sea greatly increases the impact of the sun's ultraviolet rays on microscopic 
plants at the base of the marine food chain. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel, research, fundraising, intern and 
fellowship programs. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for 
costs related to specific programs and projects, such as research, public 
education, and professional training. Government grants and contracts 
provide support for special projects at SERC that use the expertise of the 
staff to meet national goals for environmental research and education. 



95 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 





APP 


LICATION OF 


DERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


175 


8,625 


11 


1,771 


4 


2,300 





1,500 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


175 


8,923 


11 


1,522 


3 


1,820 





1,400 


FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


175 


10,476 


11 


1,482 


3 


1,850 





1,400 



ABSTRACT - As the only U.S. research facility located in the mainland tropics and 
dedicated to the study and conservation of the world's tropical ecosystems, the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) studies the functioning and 
composition of these systems for scientific research and for developing 
conservation policy in the tropics. STRI maintains a core of resident scientists and 
supports several hundred visiting scientists and research fellows from around the 
world. It also maintains a series of protected marine and terrestrial field sites and 
well-equipped laboratories for basic and applied tropical research, including the 
Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM) where research in tropical biology has 
been conducted for more than 75 years. STRI was designated custodian of the 
BCNM under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977 and an extension of 
custodianship of the area beyond the year 2000 was confirmed recently in 
agreements with the Republic of Panama. STRI erected the first construction 
cranes to study the canopies of tropical forests; runs a modern, ocean-going 
research vessel for marine and paleobiological studies; and houses a first-class 
research library and conference center. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Funding 
requested for Conservation Biology programs will allow STRI to enhance its 
research on the impact of El Nino and La Nina events on marine ecosystems. The 
Institution requires $328,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this 
line item. Included in the STRI line item, but justified in the Mandatory Increases 
section of this budget request, are funds to support the increase in personnel 
costs at STRI resulting from implementation of the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty 
($1,225,000). 



96 



PROGRAM - STRI conducts fundamental research on the ecology, physiology, 
evolution, and behavior of plants and animals in the tropics, including humans, 
with emphasis on the relationship of tropical organisms to global climate change. 
In addition, STRI provides facilities and logistical support for the international 
scientific community to study terrestrial and marine tropical biology. STRI also 
supports environmental education, conservation, and management of tropical 
ecosystems, and protects and manages the Barro Colorado Nature Monument. 

Research - Among STRI's fundamental research programs are the following: 

• Plant Physiology and CO2 Studies - STRI has become the center for 
research on tropical plant physiology, as well as on the response of 
tropical forest systems to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 
consequent global warming. After conducting pioneering, small-scale 
experimentation on the effects of elevated CO2 on seedling growth and 
carbon sequestration, STRI is planning to establish for the first time in 
the tropics a free air carbon dioxide enhancement (FACE) experiment to 
study forest regeneration over several years to learn more about the CO2 
response of mature tropical trees. STRI has intensified studies on the 
dynamic changes in forests in order to examine the impact upon these 
systems of the mega El Nino event of 1997 through 1998. Results of 
these studies are currently being analyzed. 

• Tropical Forest Canopy Biology - Extraordinary levels of biodiversity have 
been discovered in the canopies of tropical rainforests. STRI pioneered 
the study of the canopy using construction cranes to reach the tops of 
trees where much of the biological activity of the tropical forest takes 
place. The cranes enable STRI to conduct measurements from the 
surface of forest canopy leaves which can be used to calibrate 
physiological states of forests as measured by the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration satellite instruments. These cranes continue to attract 
scientists studying the exchange of gases between the canopy and the 
atmosphere and the intricate responses of the canopy to light, humidity, 
atmospheric carbon, and wet/dry seasonal changes. These studies are 
revolutionizing the understanding of tropical forest biology, and providing 
crucial data for sound conservation and management of tropical forests. 

• Tropical Marine Ecology - STRI researchers continue to document a 
catastrophic regional decline in coral reef cover and structure by tracking 
the dynamics of coral reefs along the Caribbean coast of Panama. The 



97 



techniques of molecular systematics have revealed more relationships 
than previously thought between corals and their algae symbionts. These 
relationships are fundamental to coral reef ecology because the 
increasing frequency of the expulsion of algae (coral bleaching) and the 
environmental stress that results may be harbingers of global warming. 
The Institute also plans to implement monitoring programs at two 
recently acquired sites in the contrasting Eastern Pacific Ocean on the 
island of Rancheria and in the Caribbean Sea in Bocas del Toro in 
western Panama. Understanding these extraordinarily diverse coral reef 
systems is essential for effective management and conservation of 
tropical marine ecosystems. 

Publications - During FY 1998, STRI scientists published over 200 technical 
publications as well as several important books on such diverse subjects as the 
origins of agriculture in the New World; the natural and cultural history of Central 
America; the methodology for large scale tropical forest dynamics studies; history, 
economy, and land use in the Peruvian Amazon; and a survey work of the marine 
environment of the Cayos Cochinos archipelago off the coast of Honduras. 

Implementation of the Panama Canal Treaties - Under the terms and 
conditions of the Panama Canal Treaties, the United States will turn over 
responsibility for the operation of the Panama Canal and its related facilities to the 
Republic of Panama on December 31, 1999. Under a 1997 agreement with the 
Republic of Panama, STRI is authorized to continue its tropical research mission in 
the country for 20 years beyond 2000, renewable for a like term. STRI will, 
however, experience the loss of various support services provided to STRI by the 
U. S. Department of Defense in Panama, and changes to the STRI personnel 
system will be required in order to comply with local law. The Institution is 
requesting $1 .225 million under mandatory costs in order to implement a new 
employment system for STRI. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel. In addition, these funds provide general support 
for research, fellowships, publications, and fundraising. Donor/Sponsor Designated 
funds provide support for costs related to specific programs and projects, such as 
research and the purchase of scientific equipment. Government grants and 
contracts provide support for research, internships, and symposia. 



98 



COMMUNICATIONS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


72 


5,266 


45 


7,217 


6 


1,192 


12 


1,796 


FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


72 


5,323 


44 


6,234 


6 


1,362 


12 


2,037 


FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


72 


5,502 


44 


6,237 


6 


1,081 


12 


2,926 



ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian's communications and educational programs 
promote the building of academic, scholarly, and community-based ties 
with the public, educational centers, and institutions throughout the 
Nation. This line item includes the Visitor Information and Associates' 
Reception Center, the Office of Public Affairs, Smithsonian Press/ 
Smithsonian Productions, the Office of Fellowships and Grants, the Center 
for Museum Studies, the Smithsonian Office of Education, and the National 
Science Resources Center. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for communications and educational programs. 
The Institution requires $179,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff 
funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center (VIARC) 

- The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center seeks both to 
broaden the public's knowledge, appreciation, and enjoyment of the 
Smithsonian and also to facilitate and promote participation in its programs 
and activities. As a central support organization and the principal contact 
point for information about the Institution, VIARC's work is carried out 
through the Smithsonian Information Center; 17 museum information/ 
member reception desks; response services for public and member mail, 
telephone, and electronic inquiries; outreach to the tourism industry; 
outdoor way-finding stations; and volunteer programs which provide 
primary support for the Institution's public information activities and for 
behind-the-scenes staff project assistance. 



99 



Office of Public Affairs (OPA) - The Office of Public Affairs acquaints 
the public with the programs and policies of the Institution through a 
variety of publications and by working with newspapers, magazines, 
television, and radio to gain media exposure for its exhibits, public events, 
and research. A major goal of OPA is to encourage culturally diverse 
audiences to take advantage of the many resources of the Smithsonian. 

Smithsonian Institution Press/Smithsonian Productions - The 

Smithsonian Institution Press/Smithsonian Productions is a multimedia 
publisher of scholarly and a limited number of popular works related to the 
Institution's collections and research interests. Among these works are 
academic and technical books and series, as well as television, film, and 
radio programs and special products created both in-house and with 
commercial partners. The office distributes a range of official printed and 
electronic documents, such as the Smithsonian Contributions and Studies 
series, Smithsonian Year, and Annals of the Institution, to the international 
academic community and the general public. 

Office of Fellowships and Grants - The Office of Fellowships and 
Grants manages the Institution's centralized fellowship and internship 
programs, all other stipend appointments, and competitive Trust-funded 
grant programs that support research and other scholarly activities of 
Smithsonian staff and their collaborators. 

Center for Museum Studies (CMS) - The Center for Museum Studies 
facilitates learning about museum theories and practices. CMS offers 
courses and seminars, internships and fellowships, and information and 
advisory services to the museum community. Through its programs and 
publications, CMS focuses on outreach and service to those under- 
represented in the museum field. In addition, it is developing a ground- 
breaking program to train faculty at community colleges in the use of 
museum resources. 

Smithsonian Office of Education (SOE) - The Smithsonian Office of 
Education works in collaboration with the Smithsonian museums and 
research institutes to advance the Smithsonian as a national resource for 
educators through print and electronic publishing, professional 
development for teachers, and museum school partnerships. SOE also 
serves and provides leadership to the Smithsonian education community 
and coordinates outreach initiatives to diverse audiences. Through focus 
groups and analysis with leading Web developers, the Office is developing 



100 



long-range plans for a Smithsonian-wide education area on the World Wide 
Web. 

National Science Resources Center (NSRC) - The National Science 
Resources Center (NSRC), wtttradvisory board members from the 
-^mrthsofttart- institution and the National Academy of Sciences, works to 
improve the quality of science education in the nation's elementary and 
secondary schools. NSRC supports systemic science education reform 
efforts in communities across the nation through its materials development, 
information dissemination, and outreach programs. All National Science 
Resources Center programs stress the involvement and collaboration of 
teachers and scientists. Scientists and engineers from business and 
industry, as well as academia, play a strong role in the development and 
implementation of NSRC programs. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel and other related costs. In addition, 
these funds provide general support for information dissemination, 
outreach, publications, and general operations. Donor/Sponsor Designated 
funds support costs related to specific programs and projects. Government 
grants and contracts provide additional support for resource materials 
development, information dissemination, and outreach. 



101 



INSTITUTION-WIDE PROGRAMS 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 





5,693 




















FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 





8,693 




















FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


10 


14,488 





















ABSTRACT - As part of the Restructuring Plan reviewed and approved by 
Congress in 1993, the Smithsonian reallocated funds to create two 
Institution-wide funding programs: one supports the units' needs to replace, 
upgrade, and acquire new research equipment; the other enables the myriad 
of information technology needs across the Institution to be addressed 
systematically. In FY 1995, the Institution received funds to support the 
development of a third Institution-wide program for Latino programming. 
These funds are important to meet the on-going need to acquire state-of- 
the-art research equipment, continue to improve the information 
infrastructure and systems, and increase Latino programs, research and 
collections. 

In addition to the three existing programs, the Institution requests 
resources to establish three additional Institution-wide programs. The first 
program will allow the Institution to integrate SI conservation biology 
programs addressing the problems associated with invasive alien species 
and conservation of vulnerable marine ecosystems and terrestrial habitats, 
while the second program will enhance planning for exhibition renewal 
projects. The third program will expand Asian Pacific American 
programming across the Institution. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian requests an increase to this line item 
of $2,000,000 for information technology needs, $2,000,000 for exhibition 
renewal and $1,500,000 and 10 FTEs for conservation biology activities. In 
addition, the Institution requests $295,000 for Asian Pacific American 
programming. The conservation biology, exhibition renewal, and Asian 
Pacific programs would be established as separate Institution-wide 



102 



programs managed by the Office of the Provost. The Institution requests 
that the funding in this line item remain available until expended. 

CURRENT PROGRAMS 

Research Equipment - The research equipment program helps fund some of 
the most basic research equipment needs of the Institution. Requirements 
to replace dysfunctional equipment and acquire new research tools far 
exceed the existing base funds of $1,885,000. Each year, unit directors in 
the museums, research centers and research support offices determine the 
most effective application of the funds to meet the highest priority needs. 

Most program units at the Institution received some level of support 
for research equipment in FY 1 998. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
(SAO) scientists, using parts purchased with funds from the program, 
constructed an apparatus that is unique in the world for its potential to 
produce detectable amounts of new hydrocarbon molecules. The first 
discovery from this new device in late August 1998 is a previously unknown 
molecule, informally named eiffelene because of its molecular structure's 
resemblance to the Eiffel tower. Eiffelene will likely prove to be important in 
studying interstellar chemistry and the physical conditions of material 
between stars. 

Examples of other purchases: 



• 



• 



a floor stand microscope and attachments for the National 
Museum of the American Indian 

an ambient vaporizer, ice flake machines, a DNA speed vacuum 
centrifuge, a fixed angle rotor centrifuge, DNA sequencing 
assembly and editing kit, an autoclave, a DNA thermal cycler 
chassis, and a video format camera system for the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute 

a microwave digestion system, a histocenter embedding unit, a 
robotic slide strainer, path center processor, a constant 
temperature water bath, gamma radiation counter, two animal 
anesthesia systems and an ultrasound system for the National 
Zoo 



103 



• a focus graphics film recorder, a wide angle camera and 
accessories, and a digital camera for the National Air and Space 
Museum 

• a microscope for the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery 

Information Resources - The Smithsonian is greatly increasing its use of 
technology both to manage its vast holdings and to share these resources 
with researchers, other museums, educators, parents, students and the 
public at large. In FY 1998, with base funds of $2,810,000 supporting an 
Institution-wide network and communications, collections information 
systems and digitization, this program provides an infrastructure upon 
which the Institution's programming for the Web can be extended to all our 
various electronic visitors. Schools, libraries, and homes across the Nation 
now have the ability to make electronic visits to their national museums via 
the Smithsonian's popular websites. Whether working on a research project 
on meteorites, studying for an art history exam, planning a visit to one of 
the museums in Washington or New York City, or simply wandering 
through a virtual exhibition, individuals with a specific or general interest in 
a broad range of topics are increasingly tapping into the Smithsonian's 
homepages for information. Increased attention to programming for the 
Web is an important new responsibility of each museum, research institute 
and program office, and the public has increasing expectations for that 
programming. 

Across the Institution, units are experimenting with new ways to 
bring the treasures of the Smithsonian, from the collections or from the 
great store of knowledge developed over 1 50 years of research, to a 
variety of audiences throughout the nation and beyond. Educational 
programs translate exhibitions and collections into materials for teachers, 
parents and children. In a Spring 1998 survey of teachers who use 
Smithsonian educational materials, 90 percent report having Internet 
access. Clearly, there is a responsibility to respond to the needs of this 
growing online community of teachers and families by increasing the 
quantity and quality of Smithsonian educational materials available on the 
Web. This requires developing information in several different formats. 

Information on museum collections is steadily moving toward a set of 
interconnected databases for registrarial, research and curatorial use. 
These records provide the foundation for public access to the collections, 
and will include images, videos and sound tracks. This integration of data 



104 



allows users to search for similar material across the Institution through one 
search request. 

Electronic access to images of the collections helps to preserve 
objects, and is especially useful for materials in poor condition that would 
otherwise not be available for study. A pilot project at NMNH includes 
digitizing a rare 18 th -century book used by entomologists as a taxonomic 
reference. Results have been very positive and plans are underway to set 
priorities among such manuscripts for electronic processing. 

Lesson plans developed from Smithsonian programs can now be 
enhanced significantly with links to object images and electronic exhibitions. 
One on Eskimos uses objects from the collection to teach about the Eskimo 
culture. The simple text and pictures are placed in a broader context through 
links to the "Crossroads of Continents" exhibition, and several other 
websites describing Alaskan history, geography and economy. 

Electronic versions of Smithsonian exhibitions make it possible to 
share them with those who are unable to visit Washington DC. In addition, 
exhibitions can be developed for the Web using collections that may not 
otherwise be available for public viewing. Visitors planning a trip to the 
Smithsonian can take an advance tour through websites developed by each 
museum and research institute, and can relive their visit after they return 
home, or they can surf the vast array of activities to customize their visit to 
their particular interests. 

Latino Exhibitions, Acquisitions, and Educational Programming - The 

Institution has $998,000 in its base to support exhibitions, research and 
educational initiatives that illuminate and highlight Latino contributions to 
America and permit a wider sharing of Latino accomplishments in the 
sciences, humanities and performing arts. Designated as the Latino 
Initiatives Fund, these funds are dispersed annually to Smithsonian units on 
a competitive basis, with an emphasis on projects with the potential to 
attract matching and, ultimately, sustaining funds from non-Federal 
sources. 

EXPLANATION OF PROGRAM INCREASE - For FY 2000, the Smithsonian 
requests an increase to this line item of $2,000,000 for information 
technology needs, $2,000,000 for exhibition renewal and $1,500,000 and 
10 FTEs for conservation biology activities. In addition, the Institution 
requests $295,000 for Asian Pacific American programming. The 



105 



conservation biology, exhibition renewal, and Asian Pacific programs would 
be established as separate Institution-wide programs managed by the Office 
of the Provost. The Institution requests that the funding in this line item 
remain available until expended. 

CURRENT PROGRAM 

Information Resources, ($2,000,000) - The Institution requests resources to 
maximize its ability to develop and maintain the programming and research 
information available on the Web. Few collection catalog records go beyond 
minimal inventory or basic description of an object. Much of the 
Smithsonian's research information, which conveys the significance of the 
collection to our nation's artistic, historic, scientific and social heritage, 
remains in manual files unavailable for public inquiry. The Institution will use 
the requested funds to support retrospective cataloging, adding contextual 
information, and scanning of documents. 

Requested funds will also support enhancement of teaching 
resources. Two projects provide examples of what is possible with 
additional support: The Freer and Sackler Galleries are working with the 
Fairfax County Public Schools to develop third-grade curriculum materials 
on ancient China. Two websites are planned: one designed for teachers will 
incorporate lesson plan ideas, bibliographies and links to other websites; the 
second is designed for children with activities and stories. With the 
requested funding, these sites could be enhanced to include video, moving 
icons, sophisticated indexing, and sound. The National Museum of 
American Art (NMAA) developed a bilingual webzine in collaboration with 
the Texas Education Network and teachers throughout Texas, Nebraska 
and other regions. Its online curriculum about Latino art and artists has 
been used by 38,000 teachers. Additional funds will allow NMAA to 
provide new materials on different subjects. 

The requested funds will be provided to projects across the 
Institution that enhance content material particularly focused on information 
and interactive activities available to the public and researchers outside the 
Institution. 

FY 2000 PROGRAMS 

Conservation Biology ($1,500,000 and 10 FTEs) - The Institution requests 
resources to establish a program focusing on three vital and integrative 



106 



ecological programs addressing invasive alien species, marine ecosystems, 
and conservation of vulnerable terrestrial habitats. Research staff from the 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, and National Zoological 
Park contribute to these programs, forming the largest aggregation of 
scientists focused on ecology and conservation in the world. Smithsonian 
research included in the Conservation Biology program includes: 

Invasive Alien Species ($770,000 and 5 FTEs) - The Institution 
requests resources to support enhanced research on causes, patterns and 
effects of alien invasive species. Invasive alien species threaten the 
economy, health, and natural resources of the United States. The 
President's Council of Science and Technology, through its Committee on 
Environment and Natural Resources, now considers invasive species among 
the major damaging threats to the environment. The Smithsonian's research 
expertise in systematics, biogeography, and ecology provide crucial ability 
to identify invasive species, to determine their global spread, and to assess 
their impacts in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems throughout 
the world. SERC is the nation's leading center for research on causes and 
effects of marine invasive species. The National Invasive Species Act of 
1996 designated SERC as the National Ballast Information Clearinghouse, 
which focuses on patterns of delivery of ballast water in commercial ships 
as the largest source of species introductions into U.S. ports from foreign 
waters. 

SERC and NMNH cooperate with management agencies to provide 
expertise on biological characteristics of invasive species. Recent analysis 
by NMNH researchers shows that invasive species have caused major 
losses of plant biodiversity in the U.S., as well as extensive changes in the 
distributions of species around the world. Restoration research at NZP 
concentrates on conservation of wildlife affected by invasive species that 
cause diseases, alter habitats, and compete with native species. 

The requested resources will permit staff to create a database on 
alien invasive species in three regions of U.S. coastal ecosystems 
(Chesapeake Bay, Alaska, eastern Florida), develop methods to coordinate 
marine invasive species data with patterns of ballast water delivery, and 
expand inventory of alien plant species in Hawaii. The request will also 
permit staff to expand the database on alien invasive species in coastal 
ecosystems in six U.S. regions and establish key research sites for 
measurement of geographic and temporal change of biological invasions. 



107 



The program will also initiate comparisons of biological patterns of invasion 
with the database in the National Clearinghouse on Ballast Water. 

Marine Ecosystems ($505,000 and 2 FTEs) - The Institution requests 
resources to develop a research program on ecological changes and impacts 
of El Nino and La Nina in marine ecosystems. The International Year of the 
Oceans in 1998 underscores the vulnerability of coastal and oceanic 
resources. The Smithsonian Institution developed a broad-based program to 
measure the biodiversity and ecological changes in marine ecosystems, 
with special capabilities provided by the Institution's unparalleled network 
of permanent coastal laboratories and long-term study sites along the 
western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific Ocean. The Smithsonian's 
research staff use this network to identify patterns of environmental 
fluctuation at many geographic and temporal scales. El Nino and La Nina 
episodes are major oceanic features interacting with global climate change 
throughout the tropical and temperate latitudes of Latin America and North 
America. Research staff at STRI are studying the effects of these episodes 
on marine food webs, fisheries dynamics, and ecosystem interactions using 
predictive models developed from long-term data collected by the 
networked laboratories. Research at STRI analyzes impacts of these 
oscillating oceanic/weather episodes, comparing Pacific and Caribbean sides 
of the Panamanian isthmus. Taxonomic specialists in NMNH will undertake 
a large-scale survey of marine species richness and biogeography of the 
Pacific Ocean. 

The requested funds will allow the Institution to establish key 
research sites to compare impacts of El Nino and La Nina in the Caribbean 
and eastern Pacific regions and develop conceptual models of ecological 
response to El Nino and La Nina in Central American waters. Scientists will 
measure impacts of El Nino on coral spawning and coral bleaching in 
Caribbean and eastern Pacific waters and initiate surveys of biodiversity at 
three main sites in the western Pacific Ocean. 

Conservation of Vulnerable Terrestrial Habitats ($225,000 and 
3 FTEs) - The Institution requests resources to enhance research and 
training programs to conserve key terrestrial habitats and develop 
cooperative programs for monitoring biodiversity. 

Because habitat destruction is widely recognized as the leading cause 
for biodiversity's current and rapid decline, scientists are increasingly 
concerned with understanding the underlying causes of species diversity 



108 



and habitat loss, and monitoring critical habitats such as tropical 
rainforests. Using the Institution's global network of terrestrial research 
sites, this program will use a traditional strength of all four of the 
Smithsonian's biological units to create a major biodiversity inventory and 
monitoring initiative for a wide array of forest sites ranging from tropical 
rainforests to temperate deciduous forests. STRI's Center for Tropical 
Forest Science, which oversees the most intensive global forest monitoring 
program in the tropics, will examine how species diversity can be 
maintained in the tropical rainforests. NMNH's Biodiversity Forest 
Fragments Program will concentrate on the impact of habitat destruction on 
biodiversity in the Amazon, utilizing the world's largest conservation 
biology experiment. NZP will focus on key interactions of conservation and 
development, including the integration of rural communities and protected 
areas, agricultural practices and landscape ecology, and the evaluation of 
conservation methodologies. 

The requested resources will support workshops on integrated 
conservation and establish comparative baselines of biodiversity in forests 
at several latitudes. They will also expand training programs in biodiversity 
and develop analytical and evaluation tools for assessing the impact of 
conservation activities. 

Exhibition Renewal ($2,000,000) - The Institution requests funds to 
establish an exhibition renewal program to plan major exhibitions as 
Smithsonian buildings are scheduled for renovation. The Institution has 
begun a successful, systematic plan to carry out a major capital renewal 
program to ensure that its building systems are modern and sufficient to 
continue to serve a growing and more demanding public, to provide 
improved storage for the collections, and to provide safe and decompressed 
office and laboratory space for research, collections management, public 
programming and administrative needs. At the same time, the capacity to 
educate the public, to convey the results of the Institution's research, and 
to stimulate critical thinking about national issues is undercut by outdated 
and outmoded exhibitions in many of the buildings that are currently being 
renovated or that will be renovated beginning in the year 2000. Planned 
major reinstallations require years of preparation and millions of dollars 
beyond annual federal allocations to complete. 

The requested funds will support the National Museum of Natural 
History's plan to create a central, awe-inspiring exhibition that integrates 
objects and knowledge from anthropology, geology, and biology as the 



109 



centerpiece of a major museum-wide reinstallation project. The exhibition 
will juxtapose spectacular objects such as dinosaurs, meteorites, towering 
plants, and stone heads from Easter Island against dramatic backdrop 
murals, and will weave together the threads of different disciplines into a 
panoramic picture of the world we know and the forces that created it. The 
Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems and Minerals at the 
National Museum of Natural History, which opened in the Fall of 1997, 
illustrates the level of excellence the Institution hopes to attain in future 
exhibitions dealing with the sciences. 

The requested funds will also support the National Museum of 
American History's Blueprint plan. The Museum wishes to heighten the 
visitor's experience through new, permanent and changing exhibitions, 
enhanced orientation and way-finding, and innovative learning opportunities 
taking advantage of new technologies. These changes will afford visitors 
greater access to the Insitution's vast holdings and create a richer 
understanding of the nation's history. The reinstallation of the Star 
Spangled Banner marks the first of many such blueprint projects. Through a 
public-private funding partnership, the flag will undergo two years of 
publicly visible conservation and then be reinstalled in a protective display 
with enhanced viewing. 

Additional exhibition projects to be supported by these funds include 
those in the Patent Office Building. Renovation of the building, which 
houses the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait 
Gallery, will begin in the year 2000. 

The Exhibition Renewal Program will provide the necessary seed 
money to plan for updated exhibitions while major capital renovations are 
ongoing. Funds for research, planning, and preliminary design contribute to 
fund-raising by demonstrating the Smithsonian's commitment to a project 
and providing an exhibition plan that can be shown to potential sponsors. 
Once a project has progressed through these early stages of development, 
potential sponsors are more likely to provide funding for final design, 
construction, and installation costs of an exhibition. The Smithsonian 
invests a great deal of effort in raising private funds for exhibitions. The 
requested funds will contribute to the success of this effort. 

Asian Pacific American Programming ($295,000) - The requested resources 
will expand Asian Pacific American programming throughout the Institution. 



110 



Asian Pacific Americans come from a rich diversity of geographic, 
political, social, religious, and cultural backgrounds. Some Asian Pacific 
American cultural heritages are represented in art and ethnographic 
holdings. However, aside from the prominent "A More Perfect Union: 
Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution" exhibition about Japanese 
Americans during WWII, the historical and contemporary significance of 
the presence in the United States of Asian Pacific Americans needs 
greater representation in the Smithsonian's collections, research, 
exhibitions, and current planning. In 1995, the Institution began efforts to 
incorporate the experiences of Asian Pacific Americans into its 16 
museums and other offices. 

In 1997, a Counselor to the Provost was appointed to lead efforts on 
Asian Pacific American issues. An advisory group of eight prominent 
citizens, chaired by former Congressman and Smithsonian Regent Norman 
Mineta, was established to make recommendations to increase Asian 
Pacific American representation in Smithsonian activities. In 1997 a survey 
of all Smithsonian archival holdings, artifacts, library collections, and 
programs that pertain to Asian Pacific American history and culture was 
compiled, published and disseminated. The Starr Foundation recently gave 
the Institution $50,000 to initiate a survey of Asian Pacific American 
museum collections around the country. This information will eventually be 
included in a publicly accessible database. Talks were facilitated between 
the curators of the NMAH exhibit, "A More Perfect Union," community 
members, and civic organizations to secure resources to update the 
exhibition and to digitize it in the future for a national audience. The Center 
for Museum Studies organized a professional development seminar for 
Asian Pacific American museum professionals in May of 1998. Thirteen 
museum professionals from New York, Los Angeles, Honolulu, and Seattle 
participated in this, the first program of its kind. The Institution is currently 
negotiating with the Japanese American National Museum to bring their 
exhibition, "From Bento to Mixed Plate: Japanese Americans in Hawaii," to 
the Smithsonian in the spring of 1999. A conference is being planned for 
1999 to bring together Asian Pacific American scholars, artists, museum 
professionals, and civic leaders to examine the role of museums in Asian 
Pacific American communities and to challenge museums and community 
leaders to work more closely to meet educational needs. 

Funds are requested in FY 2000 to establish a pool of funds 
managed by the Provost and carefully allocated to support a variety of 
activities designed to strengthen existing research, collections, exhibitions, 



111 



and programs that represent Asian Pacific American heritage throughout 
the Institution. The following describes major projects planned for FY 
2000: 

• Update existing exhibits - A number of SI exhibits have been identified 
that require modification in order to more effectively present Asian 
Pacific American history or culture. Among the exhibits are the Oceania 
hall in NMNH and the locomotive hall in NMAH. These funds would be 
used for the fabrication of labels and displays, as well as the 
acquisition and conservation of artifacts. 

• Exhibition planning - Funds would support the design of a traveling 
exhibition developed with the NMAH Division of Military History 
addressing the World War II experiences of Asian Pacific Americans. 

• Fellowships and training - The number of Asian Pacific Americans 
working in museums can be increased by encouraging the recruitment of 
young Asian Pacific American professionals into museum careers, 
introducing Asian Pacific American scholars to museum work, and 
making professional development opportunities available to current 
Asian Pacific American museum professionals. These funds would be 
used to create paid internship and fellowship opportunities for 
undergraduates, graduates and senior scholars and to produce 
professional development seminars in conjunction with the Center for 
Museum Studies. 



112 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS CENTRAL 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


40 


2,171 


1 


99 














FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


40 


2,218 


1 


93 














FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


40 


2,310 


1 


93 















ABSTRACT - The Office of Exhibits Central (OEC) is the Smithsonian 
Institution's most comprehensive exhibit producer. OEC is expert in the 
specialized needs of traveling, temporary, and permanent exhibitions. These 
include design, editing, graphics, model-making, fabrication, crating, and 
installation. The Office is also involved in concept development, object 
selection, product research, and prototype testing. OEC staff makes 
recommendations about the need for conservation assistance and conducts 
training in exhibit design and production with museums across the country 
and abroad. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Office of Exhibits Central. The Institution 
requires $92,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this 
line-item. 

PROGRAM - The Office of Exhibits Central is a full-service organization 
with specialized teams in design, editing, graphics, model-making, and 
fabrication. The Design and Editing team works with a curator's preliminary 
ideas to develop an overall exhibition plan. Exhibit designers are responsible 
for all aspects of visual presentation. OEC's exhibit editors work closely 
with designers and subject specialists to ensure that words, design, 
graphics, and artifacts work together to create an effective presentation. 
The graphics team provides silk-screening, typesetting, photo mounting, 
vinyl lettering, and conservation matting and framing. The model-making 
team creates scientifically and historically accurate dioramas, models, and 
mannequins. They also bracket artifacts for display and offer taxidermy 
services. The fabrication team constructs fine cabinetry and exhibit 
components. Sheet plastic work, artifact handling, and custom paint 



113 



finishes are a specialty. The packing and shipping team builds crates and 
packs exhibitions that travel across the country and around the world. 

The Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) was again 
OEC's main client for FY 1998. OEC designed and produced traveling 
exhibitions, such as "Going Strong: Older Americans On the Job," "We 
Shall Overcome," and "Jazz Age in Paris." OEC was actively involved in 
two Hispanic exhibitions, "American Voices" and the "Art of Jack Delano," 
and also provided dispersal and refurbishment services. 

Some of the FY 1 998 highlights for OEC are the exhibition design 
and production of "Between a Rock and a Hard Place, the American 
Sweatshop" for the National Museum of American History, "Jewels of 
LaLique" for the International Gallery, "Filipinos in Hawaii" for a joint 
Smithsonian-Bishop Museum exhibit at the State Department, "Tiger 
Diorama" for the National Museum of Natural History, "Speak to My Heart" 
for the Anacostia Museum, "Edward S. Curtis" for the Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries, and a new information desk at the Arts and Industries 
building for the Visitor Information and Associates Reception Center 
(VIARC). 

OEC also provided its specialized services to many SI offices, 
including the Office of the Provost, the Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies, VIARC, the Office of Government Relations, the Office of 
Special Events, the Center for African American History and Culture, the 
National Zoo, the Hirshhorn Museum, the Smithsonian Tropical Resource 
Institute, the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, the Discovery 
Theater, and the National Postal Museum. 

In FY 1998, OEC played a major role in collaborative workshops and 
seminars with other offices and museums. Staff are collaborating with the 
Museum Support Center move team providing workspaces and training in 
the processing, crating and storage of numerous NMNH artifacts. Training 
of OEC and SI staff, the active recruitment of volunteers and interns, and 
resource and information sharing among SI offices were OEC's major 
efforts. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel and associated costs. 



114 



MAJOR SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTATION 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 





7,244 




















FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 





7,244 




















FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 





8,844 





















ABSTRACT - The development of major scientific instrumentation is vital to 
Smithsonian scientists remaining at the forefront of their fields. Because of 
the magnitude of the costs and the time required to fabricate major new 
instruments and to reconfigure existing ones, the Institution requests 
funding for such projects under this line item, rather than under individual 
ones. Since these projects require long-term development and multi-year 
funding, the Institution also requests that funds in this line item remain 
available until expended. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian requests an increase of $1 ,600,000 
to construct an integrated Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscope 
Laboratory at the National Museum of Natural History. The Institution 
requests these funds be available for two years. For FY 2000, base funds 
will be used to continue construction of the submillimeter telescope array 
($4,744,000) and conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope 
($2,500,000). 

PROGRAM - Since FY 1989, the Smithsonian has received funding under 
this line item for two SAO projects: development of an array of 
submillimeter telescopes and conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope 
(MMT). SAO expects the submillimeter telescope array in Hawaii to be 
operating, in part, by the end of 1999. 

Construction of an Array of Submillimeter Wavelength Telescopes - 

The last frontier of ground-based astronomy consists of observing the skies 
with telescopes sensitive to submillimeter waves — light with wavelengths 
between those of infrared and radio waves. SAO plays a major role in 
emerging submillimeter astronomy. Since FY 1992, SAO has been 
constructing components for its submillimeter array (SMA) of telescopes 



115 



that will be located on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The SMA will consist of eight 
movable antennas, two of which will be provided by the Academica Sinica 
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan. The prototype antenna 
for the SMA made its first celestial observations of the waning Moon on 
January 23, 1998. 

The submillimeter array, with its unprecedented combination of 
wavelength coverage and ability to resolve fine spatial details, will enable 
SAO scientists to play a major role in understanding the processes by 
which stars and planets form and the mechanisms that generate prodigious 
amounts of energy in quasars and in active galaxies. When operational, the 
SMA will be a major scientific instrument of international stature. The array 
will be unique in the world in its combination of wavelength coverage and 
resolving power, and it will measurably enhance the scientific 
competitiveness of the United States. 

Conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope - In April 1 998, staff of 
the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) Observatory, jointly operated by SAO 
and the University of Arizona, transported a 10,000-kilogram (5-ton) 
dummy mirror from SAO's Whipple Observatory Base Camp in Amado, 
Arizona, to the top of Arizona's Mount Hopkins. The surrogate mirror was 
packed and transported in a customized transporter tractor-trailer under test 
conditions. The successful practice run was an essential prelude for the 
transfer of the real 6.5-meter diameter mirror from the University of 
Arizona's Mirror Laboratory in Tucson, where it was ground and polished, 
to the top of Mount Hopkins. This trip to Amado and then up the mountain 
for installation in the modified MMT building should take place by Fall 
1998. The six separate mirrors of the original MMT were removed earlier 
this Spring, following last light observations made on March 2, 1998, with 
this once daringly revolutionary telescope. 

Future MSI Projects - Future projects being pursued by SAO include: 
a nine-telescope system array that will be capable of pinpointing and 
studying extraterrestrial sources of gamma rays with unprecedented 
accuracy (SAO opened this new field of very high energy gamma ray 
studies), a long-duration balloon-borne infrared telescope, and emerging 
detector and computing technology to study the rapidly changing 
brightness of astronomical objects. They will be funded jointly with other 
agencies, institutions, and countries. 



116 



EXPLANATION OF PROGRAM INCREASE - For FY 2000, the Institution 
requests an increase of $1,600,000 for construction of an integrated Field 
Emission Transmission Electron Microscope (FE-TEM) Laboratory at the 
National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). The primary purpose of the 
laboratory is to analyze, in partnership with the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, tiny particles from within meteorites and from samples 
returned by upcoming NASA space missions. Exploration of the Solar 
system is perceived by the public as one of the most exciting areas of 
science. In fact, one of the most popular displays in the Janet Annenberg 
Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals (GGM) at NMNH is "Stardust," 
tiny diamond crystals formed long before the solar system was born. A 
photograph accompanying the object shows carbon atoms in one of the 
crystals magnified an astonishing 15 million times through use of an 
instrument similar to that proposed here. Over the next ten years the 
analysis of meteorite and returned mission samples, such as will be done at 
this proposed laboratory, will reveal an extraordinary wealth of new 
information about our world and its neighbors. Beyond the intrinsic 
importance of the science, Smithsonian scientists will be in the best 
position to teach and exhibit new scientific concepts in the future if they 
themselves are involved in the research that uncovers those concepts. 

The instrument will also be used for the study of microstructures in a 
wide range of natural and experimentally-synthesized rocks and minerals 
and industrial materials as part of joint research programs at NMNH and the 
Carnegie Institution. Unique to this facility will be custom instrumentation 
for sample preparation and handling, that will facilitate transfer of the 
samples between different instruments for sequential measurements 
without the usual difficulty of relocating the samples once they have been 
moved. No such laboratory dedicated largely to extraterrestrial samples 
exists anywhere in the U.S. despite the fact that returned samples from a 
comet (a first) will be brought back by a NASA mission that launches in 
1999. Specific scientific goals include: 

• The search for and study of samples of the tiny interstellar dust grains 
from which the solid bodies in the solar system were first made; some 
of this material exists presently in the form of meteorites, and different 
varieties of it will exist in samples that will be returned from comets and 
asteroids. Work on the meteorite samples will begin immediately upon 
completion of the lab. Study of comet dust samples will necessarily 
commence after return of those samples to Earth. 



117 



• Studying at a microscale of how rocks weather on the surfaces of other 
worlds such as Mars. The fine-grained weathering material potentially 
contains information about the long-term history of the Martian 
atmosphere and climate. This program will begin by looking at 
weathering products within existing meteorite samples, and will later 
look at material returned by space missions such as the proposed 
Martian sample return in 2006. 

• Studying the microstructures of natural and experimentally-synthesized 
minerals. All mineral crystals grow at the atomic scale, and this new 
instrument will provide fundamental information about the details of that 
process regardless of whether the crystals grew deep in the Earth or in 
the atmosphere of a distant star. Part of the goal is to develop new 
analytical techniques for these studies. 

This request is for a two-year increase to the Major Scientific 
Instrumentation base in the amount of $1,600,000 each year in no-year 
funds. The requested Smithsonian funding will support equipment 
development, equipment purchase, development of laboratory space, and 
other non-salary costs. NMNH staff scientists will apply their skills to 
analyzing extraterrestrial collections, many of which will come from NASA 
space missions. Any incremental operating costs will be supported through 
new and existing NASA research grants. The Carnegie Institution of 
Washington expects to participate in development aspects including, as 
needed, ancillary instrument development costs, funding an on-going 
post-doctoral fellowship to the laboratory, and research. An advisory team 
is in place for coordinating the development of the new instrumentation and 
for aiding in the search for staff. Actual design and development would 
begin in late 1999, simultaneously with preparation of laboratory space. 
Preliminary installation and testing of equipment is anticipated for early 
2001, followed by continued development and refining of the 
instrumentation over the following two years. 



118 



MUSEUM SUPPORT CENTER 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


69 


4,878 




















FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


69 


4,955 




















FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


69 


5,057 





















ABSTRACT - The Museum Support Center (MSC) provides state-of-the-art 
technology for scientific research, conservation, and collections storage in 
a specially equipped and environmentally controlled facility located in 
Suitland, Maryland. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Museum Support Center. The Institution 
requires $102,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line 
item. As in FY 1998, the Institution requests that the funds for MSC 
collections storage equipment and move costs remain available until 
expended. 

PROGRAM - Specially-designed, state-of-the-art storage equipment is 
available at MSC to house the more than 31 million objects and object 
parts being relocated from the National Museum of American History 
(NMAH) and the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). MSC 
accommodates collections storage in four sections (or pods) for three 
general types of needs: collections storage in cabinets, open shelving for 
biological collections in alcohol, and high-bay storage for very large 
objects. The facility also houses the Smithsonian Center for Materials 
Research and Education, as well as NMNH laboratories for molecular 
systematics, conservation, and other specialized research. 

MSC Operations - The MSC staff provides administrative and 
shipping and receiving services, oversees safety and security operations, 
and maintains strict environmental and cleaning services required for the 
proper storage of museum collections. Staff also provide computer support 
services for administrative, research, and collections management data. 



119 



MSC Collections Storage Equipment - By the end of FY 1 998, 
storage cabinets will be installed in 100 percent of Pod 1, 89 percent of 
Pod 2, and 50 percent of Pod 4. The shelving system to house collections 
stored in alcohol has been installed in 25 percent of Pod 3. The Institution 
is continuing to procure and install the balance of the collections storage 
equipment for Pods 2, 3 and 4, as well as the required shelves and 
drawers that fit into this equipment. The high-bay storage equipment in 
Pod 4 is scheduled to be installed in FY 1999. Installation of the remainder 
of the high-density storage system equipment in Pod 3 is anticipated to 
begin in FY 1999 and be completed in FY 2000. 

MSC Collections Move - The characteristics, variety, volume and 
scope of the move of Smithsonian collections to the MSC (considering the 
extensive preparation and traveling distance of millions of objects and 
specimens from nine curatorial departments in two different museums) is 
unprecedented within the museum world and poses special challenges that 
must be addressed as part of the move. MSC Move staff technicians 
inspect the objects for pests and conservation problems, clean them, and 
stabilize them prior to their move. The collections relocated to MSC are 
properly curated, less crowded, and subject to better environmental control 
than collections in most other Smithsonian storage areas. As a result, they 
have far better prospects for long-term preservation and are significantly 
more accessible to researchers. 

During FY 1998, the Smithsonian made significant progress on the 
transfer of collections and will continue to move collections to MSC in 
FY 1999. In FY 1998, collections from Anthropology, Entomology, Botany 
and Vertebrate Zoology in NMNH, and NMAH collections were successfully 
relocated. Preparations of oversized specimens that will be stored on the 
new shelving equipment system designed for Pod 4 are underway in order 
that they can be permanently relocated as soon as this storage system is 
completed in FY 1999. 



120 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ARCHIVES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,332 


2 


192 


1 


69 








FY 1 999 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,373 


2 


123 


1 


50 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


24 


1,429 


2 


123 


1 


27 









ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) maintains the 
historical records of the Institution, creates tools and products providing 
access to Smithsonian history, and oversees the policy governing 
management of the National Collections. SIA assures historical 
accountability for Institutional actions and programs while providing a 
resource for the study of American science, culture, and museum 
development. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Institution Archives. The 
Institution requires $56,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line item. 

PROGRAM - The Smithsonian Institution Archives assists offices in 
managing their paper and electronic records, maintains a repository of 
over 20,000 cubic feet of historical records, develops tools for and 
assists others engaging in scholarly research, and oversees the 
Institution's Collections Management Policy. 

Research - SIA responded to over 2,000 research inquiries during 
FY 1998 while pursuing several special projects. The staff studied 
Smithsonian funding sources and trends in preparation for the 
Institution's capital campaign, developed a database on SI relations with 
Latin America, and supervised the research projects of six fellows and 
three interns. SIA also completed Volume VIII of the Papers of Joseph 
Henry while participating in exhibits, lectures, press queries, and 
publications relating to the 200 th anniversary of Joseph Henry, the first 
Secretary of the Smithsonian. 



121 



Collections Management - Staff conducted records surveys 
resulting in retention schedules for the National Museum of the American 
Indian, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, and the Office of 
General Counsel. Focusing heavily on preservation, SIA created a disaster 
recovery plan for the Archives, prepared 2,500 cubic feet of records for 
transfer to an off-site location, and undertook item-level restoration of the 
papers of James Smithson. 

Two of SIA's priorities, the electronic records program and 
cooperative strategies for meeting the needs of multiple Smithsonian 
repositories, fall within collections management. In FY 1998, the 
electronic records program issued guidance on the handling of e-mail 
records, developed presentations for staff on electronic records issues, 
and created a test site for capture of email in the office of the director, 
National Museum of American History. The cooperative strategies project 
has fostered the creation of a facility at National Underground Storage 
(NUS) for the placement of overflow records held by eleven different 
Smithsonian archives and libraries. The facility, which can accommodate 
over 25,000 cubic feet of materials, is expected to meet long-term, off- 
site storage needs for several years. 

Publications - Staff finished placing online the 1 996 Guide to the 
Smithsonian Archives. Guide data are now integrated into the 
Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS). In addition, 
SIA completed two finding aids, Department of Aeronautics, National Air 
and Space Museum, 1966- 1986, Record Unit 330, and Office of 
Exhibitions, National Portrait Gallery, circa 1968-1976, Record Unit 361 . 

Outreach/Public Programs - SIA's homepage is now substantial. 
The third priority, digitizing holdings, was partially met through an 
expanded Web presence. New sites offer access to a variety of 
information including guidance on collections management, finding aids 
to selected archives collections, virtual exhibitions, a Joseph Henry 
homepage, and a heavily used collection of historic pictures available to 
the public upon request. The SIA site address is: www.si.edu/archives/. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide partial 
support for special preservation efforts, the Joseph Henry Papers project, 
the Latino database, and the transfer of the Guide onto SIRIS. In 1998, 
SIA received a three-year grant from the Lounsbery Foundation totaling 
$1 19,000 in support of the Joseph Henry Papers project. 



122 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


107 


6,479 


11 


1,091 


1 


102 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


107 


7,330 


11 


826 


1 


162 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


107 


7,904 


11 


826 


1 


212 









ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) supports the 
Institution's mission by providing information access to Smithsonian 
scientists, scholars, curators, and staff, as well as others with research 
needs. To do this, it builds, organizes, manages, houses and preserves 
collections; provides reference services and consultation; employs 
appropriate technologies for accessing and disseminating information; and 
contributes to and draws from remote databases. It also shares collections 
and exhibitions with scholars, researchers, and the general public 
worldwide through interlibrary loan, international exchange, and the SIL 
Digital Library on the Internet and offers educational opportunities including 
exhibitions, internships, publications, lectures and user instruction in 
support of scholarly communication. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for Smithsonian Institution Libraries. The 
Institution requires $224,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in 
this line item. An increase of $350,000 justified in the Mandatory 
Increases section of this budget request will support extraordinary inflation 
for library materials. 

PROGRAM - SIL promotes the Institution's multi-disciplinary programs by 
supporting its research and education initiatives. Through its network of 
19 branches in Washington DC, Maryland, New York, and the Republic of 
Panama, as well as through the Internet, SIL provides direct research 
support to both Smithsonian staff and the public. 

SIL staff acquire and manage collections of 1.2 million volumes that 
include 7,000 print journals, 40,000 rare books, and more than 1,800 
manuscript units. SIL makes these collections available to researchers at 



123 



the Institution and worldwide through the Smithsonian Institution Research 
Information System online catalogue. The catalogue is available on the 
Internet and the World Wide Web, as well as through the Online Computer 
Library Center, which is an international bibliographic database. 

In FY 1998, SIL moved rapidly toward achieving its major initiatives 
of building digital resources, strengthening research collections and 
enhancing collections information. 

Research - SIL is undertaking cooperative efforts with other research 
libraries in the Washington Metropolitan area to explore the feasibility of 
joint purchases of research materials in both hard copy and electronic 
form. As a member of the Chesapeake Information and Research Libraries 
Alliance (CIRLA), SIL added over 140 electronic journal titles to its 
holdings. CIRLA members also expedited interlibrary loan and reciprocal 
borrowing privileges. This year SIL reference librarians answered an 
average of 220 questions per day. SIL redesigned its homepage and those 
of all branch libraries to be more responsive to its many users through the 
World Wide Web. 

With the help of the Seidell Endowment Fund, SIL's major initiative 
to build digital collections became a reality with the construction of the SIL 
Digital Conversion Center at 1111 North Capital Street and the purchase of 
digitizing equipment. The first digital publications are planned for Winter 
1998. Since 1960, SIL, with support from the Seidell fund and the National 
Science Foundation, has published and distributed gratis copies of 281 
scientific books and articles translated into English from other languages. 

Construction will be completed on the National Museum of the 
American Indian Branch Library at Suitland, Maryland, in October. When 
the branch opens in FY 1999, the collections and services will support 
both the staff and visitors to the Cultural Resources Center. In late 1998, 
with the completion of renovations to Central Reference and Loan Services 
in the National Museum of Natural History, the collections will become fully 
accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act 
guidelines. In FY 1999, SIL will open a rare book room in the National 
Museum of Natural History to provide improved security and environmental 
control for the most costly, fragile and rare items in SIL's collections, while 
offering state-of-the-art services for scientists and curators. 



124 



Collections Management - Furthering its initiative to enhance 
collections information, SIL added 6,448 records to the online index and 
finding guide to the literature of African arts and culture. To expand access 
to the SIL collection of historic trade literature, SIL staff are developing a 
finding aid to trade literature documenting the United States sewing 
machine industry during the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. As part of its 
initiative to build digital resources, SIL published an electronic edition of 
Modern African Art: A Basic Reading List compiled by Janet L. Stanley. 

Collection Acquisitions - SIL acquires materials through purchase and 
gift and through a publication exchange program with 4,600 partners in 
150 countries. An infusion of funding from the Congress in FY 1998 made 
it possible for SIL to continue its initiative to maintain strong research 
collections. 

Exhibitions - Because of its popularity, Audubon and the 
Smithsonian" was extended until July 1998 in the Libraries Exhibition 
Gallery. In April SIL produced an electronic version of its exhibition 
celebrating the 1 50th anniversary of the Institution, "From Smithson to 
Smithsonian: The Birth of an Institution," for the World Wide Web and 
distributed a related curriculum package to history and civics teachers of 
grades 9 - 12 in 5,000 schools nationwide. In September, "Frontier 
Photographer: Edward S. Curtis," which tells the story of the creator of 
famous images from The North American Indian, opened and will be on 
view until September 1999. 

Public Programs - The Dibner Fund supported an illustrated lecture 
on "Visible Woman: Anatomical Illustration and Human Dissection in 
Renaissance Italy" by Professor Katharine Park of Harvard University. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds support salaries 
and benefits of personnel, general operations and research. Donor/Sponsor 
Designated funds provide funding for specific programs and projects. 
Through the Libraries Special Collections and Ripley endowments, SIL 
librarians purchased books in many disciplines. The Dibner Fund supported 
three SIL/Dibner Library Resident Scholars of the History of Science and 
Technology. 



125 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


46 


2,953 


16 


2,481 





1,400 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


46 


2,985 


16 


1,985 





1,500 








FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


46 


3,085 


16 


1,785 





1,400 









ABSTRACT - The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(SITES) circulates exhibitions to cities and towns all across America. As a 
leading Smithsonian outreach operation, SITES offers millions of people 
beyond Washington the chance to experience the Institution's vast artifact 
holdings and research expertise. For many, it is a once-in-a-lifetime 
opportunity. Museums, historical societies, science centers, zoos, and 
aquariums are but a fraction of the many entities that host SITES 
programs. Libraries, theaters, schools, community centers, train stations, 
vacation parks, municipal buildings, shopping malls, and jazz clubs 
regularly feature SITES exhibits, enlivening visitors with a taste of the 
museums on the Mall. In FY 1998, 669 locations hosted SITES exhibitions 
in every state across the country. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service. 
The Institution requires $100,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff 
funded in this line item. 

PROGRAM - SITES exhibitions encompass all of the disciplines central to 
Smithsonian scholarship: life and space science, art and the decorative 
arts, craft, history, anthropology, popular culture, ethnic studies, and the 
humanities. Many SITES exhibits replicate installations in museums on the 
Mall. Others require retrofitting to accommodate small galleries and non- 
museum spaces. At any given time, more than 60 exhibitions travel or are 
in production. SITES introduces new programs constantly, replacing shows 
when their tours conclude with exhibitions that offer fresh ideas and 
collection resources, and up-to-the-minute research findings. In FY 2000, 
SITES will open exhibitions on topics so diverse as quilt-making, telescope 



126 



engineering, folk music, Burgess Shale paleontology, aviation history, 
traditional American crafts, horticulture, musical instruments, golf, and 
Hawaii's endangered species. 

Educational Exhibition Packages - Although original artifacts form 
the core of SITES programs, SITES exhibitions do more than showcase 
objects. They include interactive computer programs, film and video 
components, sound tracks, educational curricula, and discovery trunks- 
interpretive tools that stimulate visitor involvement and heighten the 
learning experience. Every SITES exhibit provides press materials, 
installation guides, packing specifications, artifact handling information, 
insurance coverage, and shipping. Exhibitors hosting SITES programs 
therefore receive not only the stamp of quality inherent in Smithsonian 
"products," but also a complete exhibit package designed to encourage 
participation among people of all ages and backgrounds. 

Exhibition Access - Exhibitors rent SITES programs on a first-come, 
first-served basis, scheduling six-to-eight-week bookings on established 
itineraries. A single SITES itinerary may encompass five years and as many 
as 40 cities. Or it may involve only two years and eight locations, as the 
rarity and fragility of artifacts warrant. In keeping with its commitment to 
reach the largest number and widest range of public audiences possible, 
SITES guarantees exhibit itineraries in a variety of geographic regions. 

Exhibition Partnerships - SITES embraces partnerships as a means of 
extending the Smithsonian's reach deep into grassroots America. A 
collaborative venture with State Humanities Councils uses a unique exhibit 
delivery system that secures a vital Smithsonian presence in rural 
communities across the country. Through a partnership with the American 
Library Association, SITES maintains a market niche for Smithsonian 
exhibitions in the public libraries of all fifty states. In conjunction with 
ARTRAIN, SITES circulates Smithsonian collections in specially designed 
gallery cars on board the U.S. rail system. 

Between FY 1999 and 2001, SITES and the League of Historic 
Theaters will collaborate in taking the National Portrait Gallery's 
blockbuster exhibition, "Red, Hot and Blue: A History of the American 
Musical," to theaters and movie houses across the country. During the 
same time, SITES, NASA, and the nation's Challenger Centers will roll out 
100 copies of a 600-meter scale model of the universe designed for 
outdoor park installations at Challenger Space Centers. In FY 2001, SITES 



127 



and the Lila Wallace Reader's Digest Fund will introduce an exhibition 
about America's lost jazz shrines to the historic clubs and performance 
spaces where that music was born. And in the same year, SITES, in 
collaboration with the U.S. Department of Interior, will launch a partnership 
to present exhibitions in America's National Parks. 

A multi-year collaboration between SITES, the National Geographic 
Society, and Nissan Motor Corporation U.S.A. resulted in a major 
exhibition for young people about world geography, the mass distribution 
by Simon and Schuster of an educational CD-ROM, and special exhibition 
presentations at Silver Dollar City, one of the nation's leading vacation 
theme parks. Alliances like these open new doors to financial support, 
public advertising, and exhibit delivery systems that capture audiences far 
beyond the museum setting. 

A private sector partnership certain to draw large audience numbers 
from a broad spectrum of people will take place in FY 2000 with the 
opening of "Reflexiones." Together with Time Warner, Inc. and J. Edward 
Olmos Productions, SITES will produce three different museum versions of 
this major photographic exhibition about Latino life in America: 5,000 
small-format copies of the show will be sent to schools. Outdoor stadium 
concerts and a wide array of educational programs will complete the 
package, transforming what began as a lively but circumscribed museum 
exhibition into a major public event. 

Exhibitions Online - Capitalizing on its unique delivery capabilities, 
SITES intends in FY 2000 to expand exhibition outreach through electronic 
technology. Once exhibitions are produced in three dimensions, all of their 
graphic and text components remain in digitized form to be rearranged, 
updated, animated, and linked to video and audio programs, creating 
entirely new program presentations. A rich body of pre-existing exhibitions 
form the backbone of SITES' plan for electronic outreach. While the 
traveling exhibitions in SITES' current program provide authentic 
experiences, even the most elaborate cannot convey the range of images, 
information, and ideas available through electronic communication. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel, fundraising, exhibit design and 
production, publications, materials, outside specialists, and contractual 
services. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs 
related to specific programs. 



128 



ADMINISTRATION 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


383 


32,436 


195 


21,214 





1,794 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


386 


34,052 


195 


21,563 





233 








FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


386 


35,643 


195 


21,714 





591 









ABSTRACT - Administration includes executive management and related 
functions provided by the Offices of the Secretary, Under Secretary, and 
Provost. For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for Administration. The Institution requests 
$1,065,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line item. 
Included in the Administration line item, but justified in the Mandatory 
Increases section of this request, are funds to cover the conversion of 
CSRS employees to FERS ($508,000) and funds for Institution-wide 
accessibility improvements ($100,000). These increases are offset by the 
return of excess Workers' Compensation ($82,000). 

PROGRAM - Office of the Secretary - The Office of the Secretary, 
supported by the Office of the Under Secretary and the Office of the 
Provost, oversees the Smithsonian Institution and maintains continuous 
communication with the Board of Regents and its committees. This line 
item also includes the Office of Inspector General and Institution-wide 
membership and development, planning, management analysis, and 
budgeting functions. 

Office of the Provost - The Provost serves as the Smithsonian's chief 
programs officer, providing leadership and integrated oversight for all of 
the Institution's programmatic activities carried out in the museums, 
research institutes, central education and other program offices, as well as 
research support units including libraries and archives. The Provost reviews 
and evaluates the management of programs in research, exhibitions, and 
education outreach in the sciences, arts, and humanities; provides 
operational facilitation to the program units; and maintains close working 
relationships with directors and their boards. 



129 



In conjunction with the newly created Smithsonian Center for Latino 
Initiatives, the Provost will oversee a variety of projects designed to 
increase the awareness of the role and contributions by Latinos to the 
history and culture of the United States. In addition, the Office of the 
Provost is responsible for coordination of the Institution's new Affiliations 
Program, institutional studies, and adherence to laws governing 
accessibility and scientific diving. 

The Office also provides oversight of the International Environmental 
Science Program (IESP), which supports studies of the world's ecosystem, 
especially in tropical and subtropical regions where the rapid rate of 
deforestation, diminution of coral reef cover, loss of suitable soil, and the 
threat to wildlife are of critical importance to biological diversity and global 
change. Minimal IESP funds are maintained in this line item to support 
short-term monitoring projects, while the remaining funds are distributed to 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, the National Zoological Park, 
the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, and the National Museum 
of Natural History to support long-term studies. Staff support for 
biodiversity and environmental affairs included in the Office of the Provost 
provides coordination of related activities across the biological research 
institutes. 

Office of the Under Secretary - The Under Secretary serves as the 
Institution's chief operating officer and is responsible for the day-to-day 
administration of the Institution. This office oversees the Institution's 
auxiliary and central business activities; the activities of the General 
Counsel; government relations activities, including liaison functions with 
Federal agencies, state and local governments, and organizations with 
related interests; central computing and telecommunications services; and 
communications with the public. This office also oversees all 
administrative, facility and finance functions, as well as special events. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel and other related costs. 
Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs related to 
programs and projects such as scientific research, fund raising, public 
relations, and planning studies related to executing recommendations of 
the Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution. Government 
grants and contracts provide support for special initiatives, conferences, 
and seminars. 



130 



OFFICE OF PROTECTION SERVICES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


750 


30,673 


3 


297 














FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


750 


31,473 


3 


257 














FY 2000 
ESTIMATE 


750 


34,760 


3 


257 















ABSTRACT - The Office Of Protection Services (OPS) protects and secures 
the National Collections entrusted to the Smithsonian Institution and 
ensures the safety and security of staff and visitors, while permitting an 
appropriate level of public access to collections and properties. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian requests an increase of $2,000,000 
to begin to replace and enhance the Smithsonian's security system. The 
Institution requires $1,287,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded 
in this line item. 

PROGRAM - The Office of Protection Services provides round-the-clock 
security for all Smithsonian facilities in the Washington DC area; the 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in Edgewater, 
Maryland; the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum and the National 
Museum of the American Indian in New York City; and the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute in Panama. OPS security systems integrate 
uniformed personnel and electronic monitoring. Staff perform investigations 
services and escorts to provide a safe and secure operating environment. 
OPS is developing a security system modernization program that will better 
meet security and customer service requirements by providing integrated 
card access, alarm monitoring and closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems. 
OPS has also established a comprehensive training program to ensure that 
employees are prepared for their duties and responsibilities, especially as 
new electronic systems are installed. 

Modernization - In connection with its long-term strategic plan for 
security system upgrades and modernization, OPS has collaborated with the 
United States Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH) 



131 



to develop a master plan to support planning, procurement and integration 
of electronic security systems at the Smithsonian Institution. The draft 
master plan will be finalized in the Fall of 1998. This modernization program 
replaces security systems in over 300 buildings, will affect over 12,000 
employees and volunteers, and will integrate access-card readers, CCTV 
cameras, and alarm zones. Implementation of a new access control/photo 
pass and identification system for the Institution is a key component of this 
plan. In FY 1998, OPS initiated an access control/photo pass and 
identification system in the National Museum of Natural History. 

Training - In FY 1998, the Office of Protection Services completed 
the first segment of its new training program for security officers. Over 500 
officers completed the training, which included identification of core 
competencies for security positions, basic skills assessments, and 
standardized operational training for all officers. In FY 1998, 15 basic skills 
classes and 1 2 supervisory/management classes were conducted to 
support these skill levels. The second segment, which includes personal 
communication skills and technical training, is underway and will be 
completed in early FY 1999. The personal communication skills training will 
address the increasing demands on officers to resolve conflicts and provide 
customer service to the public. The technical training will support the 
implementation and operation of complex electronic security devices and 
systems. OPS has also collaborated with a contractor to develop a 
comprehensive two-week entry-level training program which can be 
delivered cost-effectively by in-house OPS training instructors. 

Operations - In FY 1998, the Office of Protection Services developed 
a standardized alarm-testing program throughout the Institution's facilities. 
Based on an operation research methodology from a study by the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, OPS completed a risk-assessment/ 
staffing needs study of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in 
FY 1998. This methodology links threat levels with asset value to yield a 
risk category, which translates into "levels of security." This program 
derives staffing requirements from performance measures such as patrol 
frequency and response time. A study utilizing this methodology at the 
National Museum of American History was completed August 1998. OPS 
recently initiated a study of the National Air and Space Museum. 

EXPLANATION OF PROGRAM INCREASE - For FY 2000, the Institution 
requests an increase of $2,000,000 to begin to replace the existing 
Smithsonian Institution Proprietary Security System (SIPSS) and enhance 



132 



electronic security system operations. Present system components are 
antiquated, and the age of the system components has made them 
unreliable. The present system also lacks the integration of card access, 
alarm monitoring, and closed-circuit television, which are now common 
standards for state-of-the-art security technology. Funding will address 
additional security system needs at the Smithsonian not currently 
performed by SIPSS, but reflecting the normal operational security systems 
standards for facilities like the Smithsonian. This security system 
modernization program will allow a safe and secure environment while 
permitting the appropriate access. 

As a result of recommendations from a partnership with the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers' Electronic Security Center of Expertise in 
Huntsville, Alabama, and in responses internal Smithsonian needs and 
processes, OPS will begin a three-year program to replace SIPSS and 
modernize electronic security systems in each Smithsonian facility. The 
modernization program involves design, alarms, closed-circuit televisions 
(CCTV), access control, command and control and radio communications. It 
will provide a state-of-the art, reliable and flexible security system. 

The FY 2000 spending plan will include engineering support, training, 
installation, testing, and documentation at a number of Smithsonian 
facilities. The proposed plan initially includes the Freer Gallery of Art, 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, National Museum of African Art, the Ripley 
Center, Museum Support Center and the National Air and Space Museum. 

The Smithsonian Institution will be able to maintain high standards of 
electronic security to ensure cost-effective protection of the Nation's 
treasures, Smithsonian staff members and volunteers, and millions of 
visitors each year through this modernization program. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support for 
conducting employee background security investigations and the annual 
National Conference on Cultural Property Protection. For over twenty years, 
this conference has provided an opportunity for the diffusion of knowledge 
among security, facilities, library and administrative professionals 
throughout museums, libraries, universities and other cultural property 
institutions. The 1999 conference will be co-hosted by the J. Paul Getty 
Trust in Los Angeles, California. 



- 



133 



OFFICE OF PHYSICAL PLANT 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 1998 
ESTIMATE 


505 


61,743 


29 


2,618 


1 


191 








FY 1999 
ESTIMATE 


503 


64,736 


29 


2,741 


3 


256 








FY 2000 

ESTIMATE 


503 


72,313 


29 


2,784 


3 


389 









ABSTRACT - The Office of Physical Plant (OPP) administers, maintains, and 
repairs 15 museum and art gallery buildings and grounds, as well as many 
other work and collection storage areas, by providing architectural, 
engineering, and facility planning services. In support of research, 
exhibitions, education, and public programs, OPP provides utilities, 
transportation, mail services, exhibit renovation, and many other related 
services. OPP also provides technical support to several Smithsonian units 
located outside the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, including the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama; the Fred Lawrence 
Whipple Observatory in Arizona; the Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center in Edgewater, Maryland; and the National Museum of the American 
Indian and the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York City. 

For FY 2000, the Smithsonian is not seeking additional funding for 
programmatic increases for the Office of Physical Plant. A net increase of 
$6,454,000, included in this line item but justified in the Mandatory 
Increases section, will support increases in the Institution's central utilities, 
communications, postage, and rental accounts. The Institution also 
requires $1,123,000 for Necessary Pay for existing staff funded in this line 
item. 

PROGRAM - Office of Physical Plant: Immediate Office - The immediate 
office administers facility projects and financial management for 
construction, maintenance and repair operations, and other support 
services within Smithsonian Institution facilities. It provides trade and craft 
support for the Institution that includes plumbing, electrical, wood-crafting, 
painting, and plastering efforts for Smithsonian units. 



134 



Architectural History and Historic Preservation Division - The 

Architectural History and Historic Preservation (AHHP) division establishes 
and oversees historical preservation policy and practices for the 
Smithsonian. AHHP functions as a center for research and maintains the 
Castle Collection of 19 th century furnishings. 

Design and Construction Division - The Design and Construction 
Division (DCD) provides project management and professional assistance to 
Smithsonian units in order to provide safe environments for visitors, staff, 
and the National Collections. It also continues to survey all facilities to 
identify any modifications needed to bring the Institution into compliance 
with the Americans with Disabilities Act. DCD oversees projects and 
manages financial resources for the Institution's Repair, Restoration and 
Alterations and Construction programs. In addition to repairs and 
construction, DCD assists with exhibit construction and other space 
modification projects. Primary services include orchestration of planning, 
design, and construction activities; financial management of all projects; 
review of exhibit designs to ensure compatibility with existing building 
systems; and compliance with safety, health, and accessibility 
requirements. 

South Group Facilities Management - South Group Facilities 
Management is responsible for minor maintenance, labor services, lamping, 
craft services, shipping and receiving, special events, safety, and, in 
consultation with the Smithsonian's Office of Environmental Management 
and Safety, occupational and environmental health program planning and 
execution for the Arts and Industries and Smithsonian Institution buildings. 
The South Group Facilities Management staff also coordinates and 
monitors contracts for structural maintenance, waste and recyclable trash 
removal, pest control, and renovation projects for these buildings. 

Quadrangle Facility Management - Quadrangle Facility Management 
provides a wide variety of support services to the Education Center of the 
S. Dillon Ripley Center, National Museum of African Art, Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery, Smithsonian Associates, Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service, and the Office of International Relations. These services 
include space scheduling, labor services, rigging, minor maintenance, 
lamping, shipping and receiving, and other related services. The 
Quadrangle Facility Management Office is also responsible for coordinating 
trash removal and pest control services. 



135 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General Trust funds provide support 
for salaries and benefits of personnel, related support costs, the Trust 
share of space rental costs for administrative activities located at 
L'Enfant Plaza, and support services offered to other units by the Office of 
Physical Plant. Donor/Sponsor Designated funds provide support for costs 
associated with the upkeep of Smithsonian gardens. 



136 



REPAIR, RESTORATION AND ALTERATION OF FACILITIES 





SI 


NZP 


TOTAL 


FY 1998 Appropriation 1 


$32,000,000 


$3,850,000 


$35,850,000 


FY 1999 Estimate 1 


$40,000,000 


$4,500,000 


$44,500,000 


FY 2000 Estimate: 


$56,000,000 


$7,500,000 


$63,500,000 



In order to make real progress in improving the conditions of the 
Institution's buildings, the Smithsonian is requesting $63,500,000 for 
FY 2000 for repair, restoration and alteration (RR&A) of facilities. As 
mentioned in the Introduction, the FY 2000 estimate for this account 
combines the former repair and restoration account, the repair and 
restoration portion of the former construction and improvements account 
of the National Zoological Park, and the alterations and modifications 
portion of the central construction account. 





















$y 



The Institution is steward of the valuable and visible buildings that 
form a vital infrastructure for programs and activities, as well as providing 
a safe haven for the many irreplaceable collections that are made 
accessible to millions of scholars and visitors each year. Many of the 
buildings are themselves important icons of the Nation's cultural heritage, 
part of the Nation's "face" to the world, and are preserved with the intent 
of occupying them indefinitely. Insufficient funding for repair and renewal 
of the Institution's facilities has resulted in accelerated deterioration of the 
physical plant. 

In May 1995, the Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian 
Institution expressed concern about the magnitude and continuing growth 
of the deferred maintenance problem and recommended an immediate 
investment in renovation and restoration of the Institution's facilities. 
Without it the Smithsonian will no longer present the image of a nation rich 
in cultural experience, in natural resources, and in its vision for the future. 



1 Provided for comparative purposes. In FY 1998 and FY 1999 funds are contained in the 
Repair and Restoration of Buildings and Construction and Improvements, National Zoological 
Park accounts. 



137 



The FY 2000 RR&A request includes: 

Repair and Restoration 

SI (excluding Zoo) $50,000,000 

National Zoological Park 6,000,000 

Subtotal $56,000,000 

Alterations, Modifications and Planning 

SI (excluding Zoo) $6,500,000 

National Zoological Park 1,000,000 

Subtotal $7,500,000 



TOTAL $63,500,000 



Assessment of Facility Conditions - Building systems and 
components have limited life expectancies. Despite planned preventive 
maintenance and repair efforts, their heavy and constant use has 
exacerbated the natural aging process of components. As building systems 
age, the risk of operational failure, unscheduled closings, and damage to 
collections increases dramatically. 

The National Museum of Natural History (built in 1910 with wings 
added in 1960-1964 and the Smithsonian's largest building in terms of 
area at 1 .3 million square feet) and the American Art and Portrait Gallery 
Building (built between 1836 and1860) are already in seriously deteriorated 
condition. Two more buildings, the Smithsonian Institution (Castle) Building 
(1846) and the Arts and Industries Building (1879), are rapidly approaching 
the state where the increasing risk of building system or component failure 
threatens the closing of significant portions to public and staff activities 
and exposes collections to unacceptable risks of irreparable damage. 
Together, these four buildings represent 30 percent of the Institution's 
usable area and contain significant amounts of public space. The cost to 
renew these four facilities is estimated to be more than $200 million. 

Although other Smithsonian buildings are not yet below the "Good" 
range in overall condition, periodic repair and upgrade of individual systems 
and components in these facilities is necessary to maintain them in 
efficient operating condition. Failure to renovate and renew on a planned 



138 



schedule and in a timely manner hastens decline of the overall condition of 
a building. 

Planned Renewal of Smithsonian Facilities - The Institution seeks a 
balance between correcting the unacceptable condition of its four older 
buildings and maintaining the current condition of its other facilities 
through systematic renewal and repair. The Commission on the Future of 
the Smithsonian Institution concluded that, "A total of $50 million each 
year for the next decade would assure that present facilities are restored to 
the point of being safe and appropriate for people and for collections." 
While the Commission on the Future did not address the repair needs of 
the National Zoological Park properties, the staff has used a similar 
methodology to establish an estimated funding requirement of 
$10-$ 15 million annually for the next five years. 

Progress To Date - The Institution is making some progress in 
ameliorating the most urgent facilities deficiencies with increased funding 
received since FY 1996. The most significant work includes replacing the 
roof at the American Art and Portrait Gallery Building, replacing the 
skylights and window walls at the National Air and Space Museum, and 
continuing major capital renewal at the National Museum of Natural 
History. The Institution is also actively designing major capital renewal 
projects at the American Art and Portrait Gallery, and the Arts and 
Industries buildings. 

Current priorities for the National Zoological Park focus on 
maintenance, repair, and safety improvements to existing facilities, along 
with the general renovation of at least one major exhibit each year, to keep 
NZP facilities viable and exciting for the public. The account also funds 
expenses required to accomplish the work, such as relocation of animals. 
The Zoo contracts for most design, construction and improvement projects 
unless it is more cost effective to hire temporary staff to accomplish the 
work. 

SI (EXCLUDING NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK) 

REPAIR AND RESTORATION, $50,000,000 - Despite the work 
accomplished, the Smithsonian has not been able to achieve the pace of 
work required to correct the substantial problems in its four oldest 
buildings because the funding level recommended in 1995 by the 
Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution has not been 



139 



available. The Institution therefore requests a funding level of $50 million 
for FY 2000, excluding National Zoological Park needs. Funding at this 
level will allow the Institution to continue the timely renewal of the most 
deteriorated buildings, and to make ongoing repairs required to maintain 
current conditions in the newer buildings. As shown on the five-year plan 
that follows this narrative, significant amounts will be devoted to work in 
the four buildings in most critical need of renewal. 

The Smithsonian expects to use the funds requested in FY 2000 to 
perform work in the following categories. The chart following the narrative 
provides a summary of projected expenditures by category of work for 
FY 2000 - FY 2004. The chart below illustrates projected facilities 
conditions by fiscal year 2004 at the $50 million level. 



Excellent 




Very Poor 



Failures 



Life-Cycle Time in Years 

Chart 1 : Projected Smithsonian Facilities Conditions in FY 2004 

At $50 Million 

Major Capital Renewal - The Major Capital Renewal category includes 
the cyclical replacement of major building systems and equipment and 
major renovation required ensuring long-term preservation of the buildings. 
Projects in this category are different in magnitude, expense, and planning 
complexity from routine ongoing restoration work, repair projects, or 
replacements undertaken when a piece of equipment fails. Work in this 
category primarily addresses the major replacement requirements for HVAC 
and electrical systems at the Institution's older buildings where these and 



140 



other critical building systems are nearing the end of their useful service 
lives. The American Art and Portrait Gallery, Arts and Industries, Natural 
History, and Smithsonian Institution buildings are all now in need of major 
capital renewal. 

Projects in this category involve complete replacement of heating, 
ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, and plumbing systems, 
and restoration or replacement of exterior components such as facade, 
roof, and windows to ensure long-term operation and preservation of the 
building. Modifications to the building also improve energy efficiency, meet 
fire detection and suppression requirements, and correct hazardous 
conditions. By coordinating these kinds of tasks, the Institution saves 
money and avoids repeated disruption to activities in the building. The 
Smithsonian achieves operating efficiencies as well by designing new 
building systems and components to work together. For example, by 
installing multiple-paned windows and increasing insulation, the 
Smithsonian can select heating and cooling equipment with lower capacity. 
The equipment costs less to purchase and install, and long-term operating 
costs are lower. The impact of renovation work on programmatic activities 
is a key factor in planning a major project. Work of this magnitude causes 
serious disruption to activities in the building. The Institution must relocate 
staff and collections from the areas under construction to prevent damage, 
allow staff to continue working during the construction period, and ensure 
safety and continued public access. Major Capital Renewal projects are 
phased over a number of years to achieve the most efficient balance of 
cost savings while minimizing disruptions to public programs and staff 
activities. 

In FY 2000, the Smithsonian plans to use $8.28 million for Major 
Capital Renewal work at the National Museum of Natural History, 
$20 million for renovation of the American Art and Portrait Gallery (Patent 
Office Building), and $0.9 million for design at the Smithsonian Institution 
Castle. Design of renewal work at the Arts and Industries Building will 
continue using prior year funding. 

Repairs, Restoration and Code Compliance - The Repairs, Restoration, 
and Code Compliance projects primarily involve ongoing repairs and other 
work to meet safety and health requirements to keep the newer 
Smithsonian buildings at an acceptable level of performance. The majority 
of this work is accomplished by contract, with a small amount of work 



141 



accomplished by in-house forces when appropriate and cost effective. This 
work is described in six categories of routine repair projects. 

General Repairs - Projects in this category include minor, 
inscheduled, but essential repairs that the Institution cannot anticipate 
specifically or that do not fit into one discrete category. 



u, 



M 



Facade, Roof, and Terrace Repairs Work in this category includes a 
variety of projects accomplished cyclically according to the life of the 
materials used. For example, most kinds of roofs need replacing nearly 
every 20 years, facade joints need recaulking and repainting about every 
ten years, and window frames and other exterior trim need repainting 
every five years. Smithsonian buildings require continuing facade work in 
order to restore and maintain intact the building envelopes. 

Fire Detection and Suppression Projects - Smithsonian staff have 
developed a fire protection master plan for every major Smithsonian 
facility. Projects typically include installation of detection systems such as 
smoke alarms, suppression systems such as sprinklers, and architectural 
modifications to create fire zones by installation of firewalls and doors. 

Access, Safety, and Security Projects - Projects in this category 
emphasize better access to its facilities for persons with disabilities, 
improve environmental conditions in buildings, and correct facility 
conditions that threaten the security of the National Collections. Work in 
this category includes: 

• projects such as asbestos abatement and correction of ventilation 
problems 



• 



modifications to ensure accessibility of public facilities, eliminating 
obstructions and overhead hazards, improving emergency warning 
systems, and providing seating space for wheelchair users and 
listening systems for the hearing impaired 

projects to improve the security of the collections, staff and 
visitors, such as installing security surveillance systems, improving 
exterior lighting, and installing card access systems to limit and 
document entry to certain spaces 



142 




Utility Systems Repairs - Projects in this category are to maintain, 
repair, and upgrade the HVAC systems, plumbing, electrical, and 
communications systems throughout the Institution's facilities. Ongoing 
renovations, repairs, and replacement of deteriorated equipment 
components are essential for ensuring reliable and energy-efficient 
operation of utility systems. The long-term preservation of the National 
Collections depends upon stable temperature and humidity conditions. 

Advanced Planning and Inspection - The Smithsonian uses funding in 
this category to identify and analyze long-range repair and restoration 
needs and to design future-year projects in advance of funding requests. In 
addition to improving the accuracy of cost estimates, design of projects in 
advance of funding reduces escalation costs by enabling the staff to award 
construction contracts as soon as resources are appropriated. Needed 
repairs are also accomplished much sooner, thus preventing further 
deterioration and ensuring faster compliance with codes. 

ALTERATIONS, MODIFICATIONS AND PLANNING, $6,500,000 - The 

Smithsonian requests $6.5 million in FY 2000 to continue the program of 
Alterations and Modifications (A&M) in its many facilities in the 
Washington DC area, as well as in Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, 
Arizona, and Panama. The Institution must make changes, improvements 
or minor additions to existing space and plan for future requirements in 
order to maintain the vitality and operating effectiveness of its 
programmatic activities. Funding in A&M will allow staff to contract for 
space planning and feasibility studies to ensure the best programmatic use 
of space, for design and construction of specific building modifications and 
minor additions, and for equipping of changed space. Collapsing A&M 
funding with R&R will facilitate merging A&M work with R&R work, 
wherever appropriate, realizing cost savings. Individual projects will cost 
no more than $1 .0 million and will have little or no impact on facility 
operating costs. The program-driven A&M request will not exceed 
1 5 percent of the total RR&A requirement. 



As it did in the FY 1999 request, the Institution requests A&M 
funding at the program level in FY 2000 to make the most efficient use of 
the funds for the highest priority work. The Smithsonian has identified 
requirements in excess of $12 million. However, the relative urgency of 
individual projects, and the amounts required to complete them, can vary 
in response to changing program directions. 



143 



Among the current priorities for funding in FY 2000 are projects 
such as demolition of exhibit halls and other space modifications at the 
National Museum of Natural History, completion of housing at the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Barro Colorado site, and 
installation of compact shelving at various Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
locations. Staff will also conduct space planning and feasibility studies of 
future requirements, and complete design of A&M projects to be 
constructed in future years. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

REPAIR AND RESTORATION, $6,000,000 - The National Zoological Park is 
responsible for the renovation, repair and preventive maintenance of its 
facilities. The National Zoological Park (NZP) maintains over 800,000 
square feet of exhibition, animal care, and research facilities spread over 
1 67 acres at Rock Creek Park and over 230,000 square feet of facilities on 
3,150 acres at the Conservation and Research Center (CRC) in Front 
Royal, Virginia. 

The Zoo strives to maintain a safe environment for its visiting public 
and staff, provide ecologically suitable and comfortable enclosures for the 
animals, and maintain all buildings in sound condition. In order to provide 
an incremental increase in the annual level for improving the condition of 
the buildings, outdoor exhibits, visitor amenities and utilities, and stabilize 
maintenance of existing facilities at Rock Creek and Front Royal, the 
Smithsonian is requesting $6 million for FY 2000 for repair and restoration 
of facilities at the National Zoological Park. 

A condition analysis of NZP's facilities was prepared, similar to that 
which was conducted of the Institution's other museums and major 
buildings. The chart below plots the current position of the Zoo's major 
facilities on a curve in relation to their overall expected life. The curve 
represents a composite rate of deterioration for all building systems over 
an estimated 40-year life span. The NZP buildings were placed on the 
curve according to their estimated remaining useful life. Parameters used 
to assess existing conditions were watertight enclosure, age and condition 
of HVAC and electrical systems, and compliance with current codes and 
industry operating standards. 



144 



Excellent 



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Very Poor 



Failures 



azonia, Otter/Puma 

Greenhoilse, Ed/Admin, 
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Bear Exhibits, Australia 



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10 20 30 

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Island, 
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Hoof 

Holt House 



Chart 2: National Zoological Park Facility Conditions, FY 1998 



The chart indicates that the facilities with the most serious 
deficiencies are the Holt House, Hardy Hoof, Bear exhibits, Australia 
Building, Genetics Lab, Property Shelter, Deer and Tapir Buildings, 
Lion/Tiger Building and General Services Building. 

Major exhibits, including the Reptile Building, Elephant House and 
Seal/Sea Lion Exhibits, are rapidly approaching the state where the 
increasing risk of building system or component failure threatens closing of 
the exhibits to public and staff activities, and exposing the collection to 
unacceptable risk. 

An analysis of the existing building conditions has been prepared 
indicating an immediate need for more than $25 million for renovation and 
repair of facilities and infrastructure at the Rock Creek site alone. An 



145 



assessment of facilities at Front Royal will be complete this year to 
determine the condition of facilities at that site. 

Rock Creek - There are approximately 26 major structures and 40 
minor ones on the 167-acre site at Rock Creek. The entire site and all of 
the older buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. 
The buildings constructed before and during the Work Projects 
Administration (WPA) era (c. 1935-1945) are considered a valued portion 
of our national heritage. 

Construction of facilities and infrastructure at the Rock Creek site 
was begun over 107 years ago and the site was subsequently developed 
one area at a time. Much of NZP's physical plant is technologically 
outdated and at least one third of the major exhibit buildings have reached 
or are approaching the end of their useful life. These facilities require 
complete renovation of exterior structure (roofs, windows, doors, 
skylights); animal habitats, mechanical, plumbing, fire alarm, fire 
protection; and electrical systems; as well as updating of educational 
information and improving accessibility. 

The 4,160 KVA electric distribution service must be upgraded to the 
more efficient, higher capacity 13,000 KVA electric service, and most 
building primary and secondary distribution systems must be upgraded to 
meet code and safety standards, exhibit needs and animal requirements. 

Other deficiencies include: 

• obsolete and failing utilities, including gas, steam distribution, water 
supply, and storm drainage systems 

• obsolete fire alarm and smoke detection systems and lack of central 
monitoring for the safety of staff and animals 

• practically nonexistent central monitoring of animal life support systems 
including water treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning 

• rapid deterioration of primary and service roadways and bridges 

As major components of the building systems age, the risk of operational 
failure, unscheduled closings, and danger to the animal collections and 
research efforts increases dramatically. 



146 



Front Royal - The Conservation and Research Center (CRC), located 
on a 3,150-acre site at Front Royal, is devoted to the conservation of 
endangered wildlife through programs in propagation, research, and 
international biodiversity training. There are more than 100 structures at 
CRC, including animal shelters, research laboratories and residences. The 
property has more than 2.5 miles of roads, 20 miles of jeep trails, and 30 
miles of fences. The CRC facilities and infrastructure were constructed 
over a period of 85 years. 

The repair program at Front Royal for FY 2000 includes renovating, 
repairing and upgrading the physical, environmental, and operating 
systems that affect the facility's security and improve the efficiency of 
energy use and scientific operations. 

ALTERATIONS, MODIFICATIONS AND PLANNING, $1,000,000 - Funds are 
required each year to change and revitalize exhibits. As technology and 
research bring new facts to light, selected exhibits must be brought up to 
date. As facilities are renewed, the exhibits must also be renewed to 
maintain visitor excitement and interest. 

The condition of visitor and staff support areas has not been 
addressed at NZP for many years. As staff changes are made and 
programs are reorganized, it is critical that some spaces be altered or 
modified so they are functional. As structural repairs are made, damaged 
spaces must be restored and finish materials replaced. 

Funding of $1 .0 million is required in FY 2000 to begin to meet the 
following needs: accessibility requirements for the main auditorium at NZP, 
as well as modifications to support improved audio-visual technology, 
replace worn seating and carpeting, and acoustical improvements; and 
structural modifications to several existing buildings for staff needs. 



147 



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148 



CONSTRUCTION 





SI 


NZP 


Total 


FY 1998 Appropriation 


$33,000,000 





$33,000,000 


FY 1999 Estimate 


$18,000,000 





$18,000,000 


FY 2000 Estimate 


$21,000,000 


$1,000,000 


$22,000,000 



Plans for facility development represent a major investment in the 
continuing vitality of all Smithsonian programs, whether they are for 
collections management, research, public exhibitions, or education, as well 
as its many support services. The Institution requests $22 million in 
FY 2000 to carry out these plans. As addressed in the Introduction, the 
FY 2000 estimate for the Construction account now includes the National 
Zoological Park's construction projects. Alterations and Modification 
projects previously contained in the Construction account are now being 
requested in the Repair, Restoration and Alteration of Facilities account. 
The five-year construction program is summarized on the chart following 
this narrative. 

The FY 2000 Construction request includes: 



Major Construction 

National Museum of the American Indian, 
Mall Museum 



$19,000,000 



Minor Construction 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 

Hilo Base Building 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 

Infrastructure 
National Zoological Park, Aquatics Exhibit 



1 ,000,000 

1 ,000,000 
1 ,000,000 



TOTAL 



$22,000,000 



MAJOR CONSTRUCTION 

National Museum of the American Indian Mall Museum ($19,000,000) - 

Public Law 101-185, which created the National Museum of the American 
Indian (NMAI), authorized the Institution to construct three facilities to 
house the new museum and its collections. The Museum's main exhibition 
building will be constructed on the National Mall near the foot of Capitol 



149 



Hill. The location, adjacent to the world's most frequently visited 
museums, will provide excellent exposure for Native American artifacts and 
related museum activities centered on Native American culture. The 
building, which will contain approximately 250,000 square feet of space, 
will house permanent and changing exhibitions, reference and resource 
areas, an auditorium, retail areas, and space for performances and other 
public programs. The other NMAI buildings include the George Gustav 
Heye Center, which opened in New York City in 1994 and provides 82,000 
square feet of exhibition and public program space, and the Cultural 
Resources Center now under construction in Suitland, Maryland, which will 
house more than one million artifacts in the Museum's collection and 
related care and study activities in 145,000 square feet of space when 
completed in late 1998. 

The Institution has completed overall programming and planning for 
the new Mall Museum, and the National Capital Planning Commission and 
the Commission of Fine Arts have approved the conceptual design. The 
project is now in the detailed design stage, which includes the specific 
layout of spaces and identifies building systems, architectural features, 
building materials and finishes. 

The Institution received $29 million in FY 1998 to begin construction 
of the Museum and anticipates an additional $16 million in FY 1999. For 
FY 2000, the Institution requests $13 million to complete construction and 
$6 million to equip the building. The current schedule calls for opening the 
building to the public in 2002. 

MINOR CONSTRUCTION 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Hilo Base Building ($1,000,000) - 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's (SAO) Submillimeter Array 
(SMA) is a major initiative by the Smithsonian to place a state-of-the-art 
radio telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The SMA will be 
used for the investigation of the universe using a unique combination of 
high resolution and high frequencies. Located at the high altitude of Mauna 
Kea, the Array is expected to produce fundamental improvements in our 
knowledge of the galaxy, most especially in processes involving interstellar 
material such as the formation of stars. Some elements of the SMA are 
now being constructed at the site. 



150 



The operation of the instrument will be complex and will require the 
support of many scientists, engineers and technicians on a daily basis. 
After assembly of the array, it will be maintained and operated by a 
permanent support staff of 20-25 living on the island of Hawaii. However, 
due to the elevation and the difficult working conditions at the SMA 
summit site, support staff must be located at a base facility closer to sea 
level. Repairs and many of the operations will be done from the base 
facility with only a small day crew traveling to the instrument on any given 
day. 

SAO had originally planned to lease space to meet the base facility 
requirements in a building to be developed by the General Services 
Administration (GSA). The GSA project was canceled, however, and SAO 
must now construct its own facility. The Institution requests $1 .0 million in 
FY 2000 to design the base facility at Hilo. The facility will include 12,000 
square feet of electronics laboratories, offices and support space. The 
building will be constructed near the base operations facilities of other 
telescopes on the Mauna Kea summit, in the University of Hawaii at Hilo 
Science Park. This location provides excellent access to the summit roads, 
communications hub, and to a larger scientific community with which to 
exchange ideas. The Smithsonian expects to have cooperative observing 
programs with two other radio telescopes with base facilities at the site, 
and this arrangement will contribute to attracting qualified personnel to 
what would otherwise be a remote and difficult work site. The Institution 
will seek the remaining funds of $3.5 million for construction, equipment 
and furnishings in FY 2001 . 

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Infrastructure ($1,000,000) - 

The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) is the Institution's 
major center for ecological research and environmental education. SERC 
conducts long-term interdisciplinary studies on aquatic, terrestrial and 
atmospheric systems. One major research program at SERC quantifies the 
effects of atmospheric deposition and land use on ground water, streams, 
and estuaries. Another major program addresses the complexities of 
landscapes and the biological consequences of natural and human 
disturbances. Another focuses on the control and integration of population, 
communities, and ecosystems at the estuarine boundary between the land 
and the sea. SERC is a major resource of knowledge and expertise to many 
constituencies, including schools, governments, research institutions, and 
the general public. 



151 



Research and public programs at SERC are providing to scientists 
and legislators the information needed to make decisions on the profound 
environmental issues of the day. Federal appropriations and grants, as well 
as other public and private sources, support this research. Efficient facility 
infrastructure is required to support the research program and to serve as 
an example of environmental stewardship to corporate, private and 
governmental entities. 

Construction funds are requested to design and implement 
infrastructure improvements at SERC. Included in the work are projects 
that manage storm-water runoff from the main research facilities, provide 
safe and efficient roadways, enhance sewage treatment facilities, and 
optimize energy efficiency through construction of a modern central utility 
plant. For FY 2000, the Institution requests $1.0 million to design and 
begin construction of a central utility plant. Additional funds will be 
requested to complete infrastructure improvements in future fiscal years. 

National Zoological Park, Aquatics Exhibit ($1,000,000) - Water is the 
cradle of life. This exhibit explores the wonder of water in its many forms, 
how it shapes life on earth and sculpts the earth, the adaptations needed 
to live in water, water quality issues, and how we use water. In addition to 
renovating a previously closed area, this exhibit brings to life the world of 
water while introducing visitors to a theme which will be integrated 
throughout the Zoo in the coming years. 

For this exhibit, a total of $2.4 million was appropriated between 
FY 1993 and FY 1995. Funds have been expended for planning and 
conceptual design and $1.6 million is committed for exhibit design and site 
work. The Institution requests $1.0 million in FY 2000 to complete site 
work requirements that will include the restoration of the pond area, 
construction of a valley trail and a waterfall, preparations of the wetlands 
area, and preparations for plantings. Anticipated resources totaling 
$1.3 million through fundraising will complete the funding requirements for 
this $4.7 million project. 



152 



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153 



Smithsonian Institution 
Strategic Plan 



...to the United States of America, to found at 
Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian 
Institution, an Establishment for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge. . . 

September 1998 



155 



MISSION 

The mission of the Smithsonian Institution is the increase and 

diffusion of knowledge. 



Jl 



GOAtS 



□ Increase knowledge through research activities and use of 
the Smithsonian collections. 



□ Diffuse knowledge tfirough exhibitions, publications, 
progams, electronic communications/ and affiliations; and 
through improvements in educations and museum training 
opportunities, 

□ Support increased knowledge and diffusion through 
improvements in finance, management, and physical 
infrastructure of the Institution. 



156 



MISSION STA TEMENT 






The mission of the Smithsonian Institution has 
remained the same for the 1 50 years of its existence: 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge. These words 
are taken from the last will and testament of James 
Smithson, the English benefactor and man of science 
who had never set foot in the United States, yet who 
bequeathed his whole estate 

...to the United States of America, to found at 
Washington, under the name of the 
Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge... 

Written in 1826, these words are the only 
guidance James Smithson offered to the Institution 
that bears his name today. Three years later, he died, 
and six years after that, his nephew died without 
heirs. Smithson's estate then passed on to the United 
States which, under the Act of July 1, 1836, 
accepted the gift. In 1838, eleven boxes of gold 
sovereigns, valued at $508,319.46, were deposited 
with the United States Mint in Philadelphia. 

Following eight years of debate in the Congress, 
the Organic Act of 1846 (20 U.S.C. 41 el sea-) was 
enacted on August 10, 1846. Under its terms, 
Congress established the Institution in its present form 
and provided for the administration of the trust, 
independent of the Government itself, by a Board of 
Regents and Secretary, to whom are assigned broad 
discretion to determine the most appropriate 



To carry out its mission of 
increasing and diffusing 
knowledge, the Institution: 

O performs fundamental 
research 

U publishes the results of 
studies, explorations, and 
investigations 

O preserves for study and 
reference more than 140 
million items of scientific, 
cultural, and historical interest 

O maintains exhibits 
representative of the arts, 
history, technology, 
aeronautics and space 
exploration, and natural history 

O participates in the 
international exchange of 
learned publications and 
scholars 

O engages in programs of 
education and national and 
international cooperative 
research and training 



157 



means of increasing and diffusing knowledge. During 
the long debate preceding the Act, different groups 
had proposed various functions for the Smithsonian, 
including a national university, normal school, school 
for the blind, national library, and a national museum 
of the arts and sciences. Some proponents focused 
on the increase of knowledge and some on its 
diffusion, while others emphasized that the trust was 
not intended to benefit the United States only, but the 
world at large. Although the university and school 
functions were abandoned, the Act of 1846 did 
provide for most of the other proposals: 

...the Board of Regents. ..shall cause to be 
erected a suitable building. ..with suitable 
rooms and halls for the reception and 
arrangement. ..of objects of natural history, 
including a geological and mineralogical 
cabinet; also a chemical laboratory, 
a library, a gallery of art, and the necessary 
lecture rooms... 



The Organic Act of 1846, 
Section 3, provided: 

That the business of the 
said Institution shall be 
conducted at the city of 
Washington by a board of 
regents.. .to be composed of 
the Vice-President of the 
United States, the Chief 
Justice of the United States... 
three members of the Senate, 
and three members of the 
House of Representatives; 
together with six other 
persons, other than members 
of Congress... 



In summary, James Smithson, in bequeathing the 
whole of his property "for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge," created a charitable trust with the 
United States as trustee for purposes not limited to 
the national interest, but for the benefit of all 
mankind. In the Act of July 1, 1836, Congress 
accepted the Smithson trust with its commitment to 
the trust, Congress has, from the start, supplemented 
trust resources with appropriated funds and property. 

This unique combination of a privately endowed 
Institution, administered by a Board of Regents 
independent of the Government, and the continuing 
support of the United States as trustee, in generous 
fulfillment of its pledge, has made possible the 
achievements of the Smithsonian. Contributions from 
private donors, inconceivable in 1836, have created 
the great national collections, and continuing additions 
to the Smithsonian's trust funds have maintained the 
Institution's central resource for initiative and 
integrity. For its part, the Congress has responded 




James Smithson 
(1765-1829) 



158 



with the very substantial Federal support that has 
been essential to the growth of the Institution and to 
its far-reaching services to the public for more than a 
century and a half. 

As noted previously, the Organic Act established 
the Board of Regents. Subsequent legislation amended 
the composition of the Board by increasing the 
number of citizen members from six to nine. In this 
century, the Regents have sought specific legislative 
authority for some activities that further the trust, 
most particularly those requiring the appropriation of 
large sums of Federal money. However, neither those 
statutes nor the ensuing appropriations have altered 
the powers of the Regents or their independent 
authority. 

Across the years, advisory groups have been 
formed to address specific needs identified by the 
Regents. For example, based on growing evidence of 
the need for increased cooperation with entities 
outside the Institution, the Smithsonian Council was 
established in 1966. As planned, the Council, 
consisting of not more than 25 members, meets to 
advise on matters affecting the progress of science 
and learning within the Institution. Council members 
are appointed on the basis of distinguished 
attainments in scholarship, research, and 
understanding, and are drawn principally from those 
active in the learned professions. The National Board 
was established in 1971 as another advisory board for 
Smithsonian management. It consists of 50 members 
from across the country who assist with Institutional 
advancement and outreach, and provide expertise on 
business and operational matters. In addition to these 
two pan-Institutional bodies, many Smithsonian units 
also have advisory boards and commissions. A 
complete list of these boards and an organization 
chart accompany this document. 



The Board of Regents: 

O bears the responsibility of the 
United States as trustee for 
carrying out Mr. Smithson's 
bequest and the public trust for 
which it provided; 

O benefits from representation 
from ail three branches of 
Government, yet the Institution is 
not part of any branch of 
Government; and 

O sets Institution policy and 
oversees the management of the 
Smithsonian assets: the 
collections, the buildings of the 
Institution, and the funds 
available to it. 




159 



KEY EXTERNAL FACTORS 



In September 1993, the Institution's Board of 
Regents commissioned a group of citizens to 
ponder the future of the Institution. The 
Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian 
was charged with "...an examination of the 
Smithsonian, its mandate and its roles, and an 
examination of the cultural, societal, and 
technological factors that influence its capacity 
to act." The Commission issued its report in 
1995. As part of its efforts, the Commission 
reviewed the setting of the Smithsonian, that is, 
the environment in which the Institution 
operates, and also addressed what changes the 
Institution might face in the future. The 
following summary of the Commission's findings 
represents the key external factors that the 
Institution must consider in developing and 
implementing goals and objectives that will 
enable it to fulfill its mission. 

From the time of James Smithson's bequest, 
there have been enormous changes in the nation, 
beginning with the growth in population. 
Worldwide movement of people has brought 
ever greater ethnic and racial diversity to this 
country. Increased diversity and greater 
participation in public life by various segments of 
the population have resulted in more vigorous 
debates about values. For an educational 
institution like the Smithsonian, such elements 
enrich the cultural environment and offer new 
opportunities. Interactions between nations and 
their peoples have also changed dramatically, to 
a large extent as a result of technology. 




Changes since the mid-1 800s: 

"I Scientific advances have vastly 
expanded the world of knowledge 
in the Institution's domain. 

H The natural environment is 
under extreme pressure. 

D Technology has permanently 
altered the nation and the world. 

D Concomitant with technological 
changes and interacting with them 
have been enormous social and 
political changes. 

D More of the nation's people are 
educated through high school and 
college. 



160 



Just as the nation today is vastly different 
from the way it was in 1846, so it will continue 
to change in the decades to come, with the pace 
of change accelerating. The population is aging. 
The proportion of the population who are 
members of racial or ethnic minority groups will 
increase in the decades ahead. As recently as 
1990, these groups represented one in five 
Americans. According to Census Bureau 
projections, by 2050 about half the population 
will have origins in these groups. 

Popular sensibilities and interests continue to 
evolve. Scientific understanding is deepening, 
and the enhanced ability to communicate speeds 
the awareness of these and other changes. The 
Institution's principal future challenge is to 
reflect a rapidly changing society, to change 
itself, and to be a contributor to the richness of 
that society while being the treasury of the past. 

Flexibility in programs, outlook, finance, 
administration and governance will be one 
requirement for dealing with changing challenges 
and opportunities. New, alternative ways to 
expand the reach of the Institution and reflect 
new developments can be exploited. 



"This Institution has for 
many years played a vital part 
in Americans' sense of their 
nationhood. As the United 
States becomes an even richer 
composite of cultures and 
peoples, the Smithsonian 's role 
as a national meeting place will 
become even greater, 
representing the satisfying 
possibilities of our diverse 
society. " 

I. Michael Heyman, 
Secretary 




161 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 



The following goals and related objectives collectively represent the priorities of 
the Smithsonian Institution, and will set the framework for program activities and 
resource allocations during the next five-year period. While the goals and objectives 
are numbered and presented in a certain order, this presentation does not represent an 
order of priority among them. Indeed, many of the goals and objectives presented 
here are inter-related in ways that would not permit one to be achieved without 
impacting on or drawing from one or more of the others. Most importantly, it must be 
noted that achievement of these goals and objectives is largely dependent on the level 
of resources available to the Institution during the planning period. 

Included with each goal and objective is a set of strategies for meeting them, and 
a list of possible areas of measurement to be used in determining if the objectives and 
goals have been met. An annual performance plan for each year, beginning in fiscal 
year 1999, will include the specific goals, strategies and measures that the Institution 
will use to measure its progress toward meeting its strategic goals. 



162 



GOAL I 
increase Knowledge Through Research Activities and Use of the 

Smithsonian Collections 



OBJECTIVE 
Support research based on collections, other research areas of excellence within the 
Institution, and long-term global projects. 



STRATEGIES 

□ Continue to foster the identification and reward of excellence in research. 

□ Determine areas of the collections that could become the focus for research at 
the Institution. 

□ Facilitate linkages among researchers across disciplines, and with other research 
institutions worldwide, including increased support for fellowships. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 

□ Independent assessments of research programs as to their productivity, quality 
and relevance. 

J Continued use of peer review and other evaluation methodologies. 

_1 Increased support of fellowships. 

J Continued dissemination of research findings through publications, electronic 

technology, and other means. 

□ Productivity of relationships between researchers across disciplines and in different 
research areas. 



163 



OBJECTIVE © 
Provide for management of the Smithsonian collections as central resources for 
research, public access, and the bases for other program activities. 



STRATEGIES 
J Continue to refine policies for future acquisitions of collections. 
J Keep policies current for management of collections, including access, storage, 
location and conservation. 
3 Continue to review and improve storage and conservation of collections. 

□ Continue electronic cataloging and digitizing images of collections. 

□ Work toward strengthening technology infrastructure and linkages of computerized 
databases of the catalogued collections and images of objects. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 

□ Continued implementation of the Institution's collections policy, incorporating 
acquisition, access, storage, conservation, and sharing through loans. 

□ Improvements in storage of collections. 

LJ Continuation of research on collections care and conservation. 

□ Seek to increase the number of computerized collections databases and digitization 
of selected collections 

LJ Seek to increase the number of linkages of databases, both of collections and 
images of objects. 



164 



GOAL II 
Diffuse Knowledge Through Exhibitions, Publications, Programs, 

Electronic Communications, and Affiliations; and Through 
improvements in Education and Museum Training Opportunities 



OBJECTIVE © 
Provide exhibitions, publications and programs that are balanced and of the highest 
quality; assure appropriate representation of the contributions of various ethnic groups 
to the cultural and artistic heritage of the United States; enhance presentation of 
research and education activities; and reach under-served audiences. 



STRATEGIES 

□ Continue to refine procedures for review of plans for major new exhibitions. 
_J Continue planned schedule of exhibition renewal and restoration, in line with 
determined priorities. 

□ Continue program of traveling exhibitions and other means of sharing collections 
and research outside of Washington. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
□ Continue implementation of new exhibition scheduling system. 
J Quality and quantity of exhibitions aimed at providing outreach to under-served or 
under-represented groups. 
J Quality and quantity of traveling exhibitions. 

G Survey of exhibition visitors to determine their perceptions of the exhibitions and if 
they received intended message. 

J Quality and quantity of new exhibits, and restoration, renewal, or expansion of 
existing exhibits where required. 



165 



OBJECTIVE © 

Continue to take advantage of the opportunities provided by electronic 
communication and information technology. 



STRATEGIES 
G Continue to expand and renew the information available on the Institution's World 
Wide Web site. 

G Explore additional methods of making collections available beyond the Mall, such 
as television, video, and digital imaging. 

AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
G Expand, if necessary, and keep materials current on the Smithsonian website. 
G Record the number of visits to the Smithsonian website and seek demographic 
information on visitors. 

G Surveys/feedback on the usefulness/impact of the website. 
G Seek to increase the number of museum objects recorded in digital form. 
G Seek to increase the number of new television or video presentations and the 
number of viewers/buyers. 



OBJECTIVE €> 
Build collaborative partnerships with other museums, research centers, and 
educational institutions throughout the nation. 

STRATEGIES 

G increase public access to the collections through affiliations with other museums or 

organizations. 

G Continue the exchange of professional personnel and access for students through 

partnerships with other research institutions. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
G Continued implementation of Institutional policy on affiliations: the number and 
scale of affiliation agreements involving long term loans of collections. 
G The number of research partnerships in research institutes and museums, and the 
number of students provided access through research partnerships. 



166 



OBJECTIVE © 
Apply the Smithsonian's unique resources to enhance pre-school through Grade 12 
education and adult education. 



STRATEGIES 
_J Using models such as the Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center, the National Science 
Resources Center, and Smithsonian/school partnerships, extend the involvement of the 
Institution in the nationwide effort to improve education. 

□ Use the collections and other resources of the Institution to contribute to teacher 
training, and increased parental and community involvement in pre-school through 
Grade 12 education. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 

□ The quality and number of partnerships with school districts, locally and across the 
country. 

□ The quality and number of students trained using Smithsonian resources, including 
through electronic communication technologies. 

□ Number of teachers trained using Smithsonian resources, including through 
electronic communication technologies. 

□ Surveys or feedback on improvements in teaching and learning resulting from 
Smithsonian-based training. 



167 



OBJECTIVE @ 

Emphasize education both on the Mall and across the country through a variety of 
means. 



STRATEGIES 
J Expand Smithsonian educational programs to reach diverse populations, including 
unserved or under-served communities. 

□ Expand informal education through museum collections and objects-based learning 
in exhibitions. 

LI Expand efforts to provide more information on linkages between research and 
education/outreach activities. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 

□ The quality and reach of educational programs aimed at new or under-served 
audiences 

LI The quality and reach of collections and exhibition-based education programs 

developed 

LI The quality and reach of education/outreach activities based on Smithsonian 

research 

□ Periodic studies of the impact of collections and exhibition-based education 
programs 



OBJECTIVE ® 
Continue to use the Smithsonian's unique resources to provide training to museum 
professionals and aspirants. SS S.:l 

STRATEGIES 

□ Continue to provide Smithsonian-based training and professional support to museum 

professionals. 

LI Continue to provide training and other educational and outreach services to interns, 

students, postgraduates and others interested in museum careers, with particular 

attention to under-served communities. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
LI Number of museum professionals trained at the Smithsonian 

□ Number of seminars and other special training opportunities provided 

□ Number of interns and students employed or placed in programs at the Smithsonian 
LI Proportion of interns, students, and museum professionals trained representing 
under-served communities 



168 



GOAL III 

Support Increased Knowledge and Diffusion Through Improvements 
in Finance, Management, and Physical Infrastructure of the 

institution 



OBJECTIVE O 

Continue to streamline and improve work processes through reengineering, 
automation, and review/delegation of authorities to units where appropriate. 

STRATEGIES 
Q Review policies and procedures to ensure they are simple, ensure clear 
accountability, and distinguish appropriately between responsibilities of central 
administration and the units. 

G Include decentralization of activities in planning, where appropriate. 
G Provide units with appropriate tools and authorities to accomplish their goals 
efficiently and effectively. 

AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
G Number of organizational changes reflecting efficiencies through decentralization or 
other means 

G Number of policy directives relating to central versus decentralized responsibility 
reviewed and/or revised 

G Improvements in work processes, including automating systems 
G Financial savings (or cost avoidance) resulting from improvements in work 
processes 



OBJECTIVE © 

Seek to enhance personnel and procurement policies and practices. 



STRATEGIES 

G Explore mechanisms for developing a unified Smithsonian personnel system. 

G Review proposals for new systems to insure they are flexible, accountable, rational, 

and equitable, as well as reflective of the Institution's unique needs. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
J Proposals developed for new or revised personnel system 

J Proposals reviewed, revised and implemented for increased flexibility in personnel and 
procurement systems 



169 



OBJECTIVE © 
Seek ways to enhance program activities by increasing revenues through fundraising 
or commercial activities. 



STRATEGIES 
J Assist units in increasing their development activities, to provide for facilities 
needs, protection of collections, exhibitions, education, and electronic outreach 
activities. 

G Seek approval for and initiate a major capital campaign for the Institution. 
3 Continue and expand business activities in order to increase income available for 
programs and facilities. 

□ Develop criteria for assessing the viability of business ventures before they are 
undertaken. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
J Increases in fundraising levels in museums, research institutes and other units 
J Development and initiation of major capital campaign 
□ Level of net income generated from business activities 



170 



OBJECTIVE © 
Seek to enhance improvements in the physical infrastructure of the Institution. 



STRATEGIES 

G Continue emphasis on repair and restoration of facilities, which are national 

monuments. 

□ Seek improvements in infrastructure, including new buildings required to protect 

existing collections, through public/private partnerships. 



AREAS OF MEASUREMENT 
G Progress made in construction of facilities for protection of existing collections 
(National Museum of the American Indian; National Air and Space Museum Dulles 
Center) 

G Management of funding for renovation, repair and maintenance projects 
G Decline in backlog of repair and rehabilitation projects 



171 



RELA TIONSHIP OF THE STRA TEGIC PLAN GOALS AND 
OBJECTIVES TO THE GOALS OF 
THE PERFORMANCE PLAN 



The Smithsonian has prepared its first annual performance plan and 
submitted it as part of its fiscal year 1 999 request. The performance plan 
includes seven goals, which are tied directly to the programs of the 
Institution: research and collections management; education, public programs 
and exhibitions; administration; and facilities and security. Each of the 
performance goals is also directly related to the strategic goals and objectives 
of the Institution. 



For the most part, the Performance Plan goals are more narrowly 
focused than the Strategic Plan goals, and reflect the specific activities the 
Institution and its units will engage in during fiscal year 1999 to make 
progress towards achieving the Institution's strategic goals. The 
measurements and milestones included in the Performance Plan will enable 
the Institution to gauge its progress during fiscal year 1 999 in reaching the 
strategic goals, and will also provide important information as to whether the 
strategic goals need to be adjusted in future years. 



172 



SPECIAL FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 

Program of Grants for Research - Through its Special Foreign Currency 
Program, the Smithsonian makes grants to United States universities, 
museums, and other institutions of higher learning (including the Institution 
itself) primarily for research and advanced professional training in fields of 
traditional Smithsonian competence. 

Excess currency appropriations directly funded the program through 
FY 1986. Outlays from budget authority provided through 
FY 1986, including the Forward-funded Reserve for the American Institute 
of Indian Studies, will continue through the 1990s. In addition, since 
FY 1986 the Smithsonian has received allocations of U.S. -owned Indian 
rupees from funds appropriated to the Department of State in FY 1 985 for 
the establishment of the U.S. -India Fund for Education, Cultural, and 
Scientific Cooperation. 

Since its initiation in 1965, the Smithsonian Foreign Currency 
Program has been a major source of support for research carried out by 
United States institutions in those countries for which excess foreign 
currencies are available. The full responsibility for the design, execution, 
and publication of research results rests with the scholar working within a 
program of a United States institution. Smithsonian foreign currency grants 
strengthen the fundamental research and training activities of collaborating 
institutions abroad, because most projects directly involve host country 
institutions and scholars. Enduring professional ties, which result from joint 
efforts and scholarly exchange, contribute to the strongest form of United 
States cultural relations with other nations. These ties also contribute to 
the global integration of research data in the sciences. As a result of this 
interaction, the gap between scholars from industrial and developing 
nations has narrowed. Moreover, research sponsored by the program aims, 
in part, to improve understanding of the environment, as well as 
management and conservation of scarce natural and cultural resources 
threatened by the rapid growth of world population and technological 
development. 

In FY 1998, ongoing research supported by these grants included 
projects in archeology, anthropology, art history, biology, and astrophysics. 



173 



Forward-Funded Reserve for the American Institute of Indian Studies - 

Since 1967, the Smithsonian has provided annual funding through the 
Special Foreign Currency Program to the American Institute of Indian 
Studies (AIIS) for its fellowships, research, symposia, and publications 
programs, as well as for its administrative costs. The Smithsonian has 
helped sustain this Institute and other American research centers abroad for 
more than 30 years because of their contributions to scholarship and 
science without regard to national boundaries and because of their special 
service to American scholars. 

With Special Foreign Currency Program funding received from 
FY 1980 through FY 1985, the Smithsonian established a forward-funded 
reserve of $7,170,000 equivalent in rupees. This reserve enabled the AIIS 
to sustain its programs after the removal of India from the excess currency 
list in 1985. Since FY 1986 AIIS, with oversight from the Smithsonian, has 
drawn upon funds in this reserve for its fellowship program and 
administrative costs in India. The Institution continues to examine annual 
proposals through its peer review system before releasing funds to AIIS. 

The reserve should provide core support for AIIS programs well into 
the new millenium. In 1990 Congress authorized the deposit of the reserve 
in interest-bearing (rupee) accounts in order to help continue the viability of 
the fund. In FY 1993, the first deposits totaling an equivalent of $4 million 
were made to the interest-bearing accounts. Most of the funds remaining in 
the reserve were deposited into interest-bearing accounts in FY 1995. The 
first draw-down of those funds occurred in 1998 when the last rupee grant 
was made. 

U.S. -India Fund for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Cooperation - In 

FY 1985, Congress appropriated $100 million equivalent in U.S. -owned 
Indian rupees to the Department of State to establish the U.S. -India Fund 
for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Cooperation. Since FY 1986, the 
Smithsonian has received allocations from this fund to continue programs in 
India similar to those administered under the Special Foreign Currency 
Program, which would otherwise have ended when India lost excess 
currency status in 1985. The Institution has received a total of $17.6 
million through FY 1996. The FY 1997 final allocation of the principal 
totaled $1.1 million equivalent. Based on current requirements, the principal 
of the U.S. -India fund was totally obligated by January 1 998, signaling the 
last of the U.S. -owned rupee grants. 



174 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES 

In addition to support provided by Federal appropriations, the 
Institution receives nonappropriated funds to expand and enrich its 
programs. To provide an overview of all sources of funding the Institution 
offers the information that follows. 

The Institution's non-appropriated funds, known as Trust funds, 
include general Trust funds with limited or no restrictions on their use; 
designated funds restricted by the donor or sponsor; and government 
grants, and contracts. Projections are subject to the uncertainty of the size 
of donations, grants, and contracts; to fluctuations in visitor attendance; 
and to the volatility of the economy, which directly affects the return on 
the endowment as well as restaurant, mail order, and museum shop 
revenues, memberships, and other auxiliary activities. The Institution's 
gross operating revenue, less the expenses of the auxiliary activities, 
represents the net operating revenue available for programmatic and related 
purposes. The following table provides a summary of the sources of 
nonappropriated operating funds. 



(Dollars in Millions) 


FY 1998 
Estimate 


FY 1999 
Estimate 


General Trust 


41.6 


45.7 


Donor/Sponsor Designated 


45.6 


71.8 


Government Grants &Contract 


48.5 


54.4 


Total Available for Operations 


135.7 


171.9 



SOURCE AND APPLICATION OF NONAPPROPRIATED TRUST FUNDS - 

Information on the application of General Trust funds, designated funds, 
and government grants and contracts for FY 1998, FY 1999, and FY 2000 
is provided with each line-item in this budget. The following describes the 
sources of each category of Trust funds as well as a general description of 
their application. 

General Trust Funds - The sources of General Trust funds are 
investment income; earnings from unrestricted endowments; net proceeds 
from the museum shops, mail order, and food service concessions; sales of 
Smithsonian books, records, and other products based on designs and 
objects in the collections; theater/planetarium operation at the National Air 
and Space Museum; rental of exhibitions of the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service; membership programs (including Smithsonian 



175 



and Air and Space magazines); the sale of posters, exhibition brochures, 
catalogs, and other publications; admission fees; and overhead recovery on 
government grants and contracts received. Projected sources of FY 1999 
General Trust funds total $45.7 million. 

Overhead recovery is the principal source of Trust support for central 
management and administrative service units of the Institution, including 
legal counsel, accounting, personnel, contracting and procurement, and 
budget. General Trust funds also support activities of units such as Cooper- 
Hewitt, National Design Museum; Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural 
Studies; Office of Membership and Development; Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute; Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center; 
and other Institutional and unit-based programs. The Board of Regents 
approves allotments to these activities. 

General Trust funds also support fellowship and award programs and 
exhibitions. FY 1999 funding of $1.9 million will be provided for various 
fellowship programs. Awards under the Institution's Collections Acquisition, 
Educational Outreach, and Scholarly Studies programs are projected in the 
FY 1999 budget to total $2.2 million. These awards will provide 

$631 ,000 to purchase exceptional objects important to the 
collections 

$226,000 to conduct a wide range of educational outreach 
programs with a special focus on diverse audiences 

$1 .3 million for innovative scholarly research projects initiated by 
the Institution's research staff, occasionally in collaboration with 
scholars from other institutions. 

The Institution supports exhibition programs with Federal funds and 
with donations from individuals, foundations, and corporations, as well as 
its Special Exhibition Fund (SEF). This General Trust fund, with $1.3 million 
in FY 1999, provides an important source of funds for temporary and 
permanent exhibitions proposed by Smithsonian units that, regardless of 
scale, are of outstanding educational value to the public. The SEF allows 
units to explore new or expand current interpretive or exhibition techniques; 
supports exhibits that are worthy but, by their nature, unlikely to attract 
major private contributions; and allows for development of exhibits targeted 
to reach previously underserved audiences. 



176 



Donor/Sponsor Designated Funds - Designated Trust funds include 
gifts, grants, and earnings or endowments from individuals, foundations, 
organizations, and corporations that specify the purpose of the funds. 
Designated funds in FY 1999 are projected to total $71.8 million. 
Generally, these funds support a particular exhibition or research project. 
The Freer endowment, the Institution's largest designated endowment, 
accounts for nearly one quarter of Smithsonian endowment principal. 

Government Grants and Contracts - Various Government agencies 
and departments provide grants and contracts for projects that only the 
Smithsonian can conduct because of its expertise in a particular area of 
science, history, art, or education and because of its ability to respond 
quickly to certain needs. For FY 1999, government grants and contracts for 
operations are projected to be $54.4 million. Of this amount, $45.4 million 
is provided for astrophysical research and development carried out by the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 



177 



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